Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Since when the first writing was established in the Mesopotamian area, most cultures have strived to create a legacy that allowed people to remember them. And with the major empires rise before the common era were without the technologies and knowledge that we know today, it seems impossible. But the early empires were significant in the spread of knowledge, religions, or technologies; each with its own mark on history. And two eras that have exceeded in every way were the Roman and Chinese empires. During the Eastern Zhou era, ideas were furnished to Ã¢â¬Å"promote harmony and stabilityÃ¢â¬ (Judge, Langdon 80). This allowed the ethical philosophy in China, especially Confucianism, to be produced. It was absorbed into Buddhism and Daoism, and helped sustain the culture in times of political trouble. Confucianism stresses Ã¢â¬Å"humane conduct, civility, and relationshipsÃ¢â¬ (Judge, Langdon 81). Human conduct meaning sympathy, civility meaning courtesy, and the relationships that Judge and Langdon talk about are mainly to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s parents, leaders, and ancestors (81). Confucius stresses in Analects that this is the Moral Way and that it could Ã¢â¬Å"return Chinese society to a state of harmony and justiceÃ¢â¬ (Andrea Overfield 93). Although Confucianism was not written down during its founderÃ¢â¬â¢s life, the immediate followers were able to write down his teachings and produce them to their emperors. This held their rulers and officials to Ã¢â¬Å"high moral stan dardards, promoting good governance and discouragedShow MoreRelatedThe White Man s Burden By Rudyard Kipling10612 Words Ã |Ã 43 Pagesbinary opposing approach of the Ã¢â¬Ëwe/themÃ¢â¬â¢, and the power and violence approach of Foucault and Arendt could be readily attached to analyse the text. Having an eye on these approaches, this section offers a critical thinking about the nature of the relationship between the British and the Indians. 2.1 The Indian Landscape and the Sense of Displacement As in Heart of Darkness, the Indian landscape appears very hostile to the colonisers as if it conspires and plots against them. It depicts their socio-psychologicalRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesUnderstanding Work Teams 307 Communication 335 Leadership 367 Power and Politics 411 Conflict and Negotiation 445 Foundations of Organization Structure 479 v vi BRIEF CONTENTS 4 The Organization System 16 Organizational Culture 511 17 Human Resource Policies and Practices 543 18 Organizational Change and Stress Management 577 Appendix A Research in Organizational Behavior Comprehensive Cases Indexes Glindex 637 663 616 623 Contents Preface xxii 1 1 Introduction Read MoreRastafarian79520 Words Ã |Ã 319 Pagesits routinization is in conversation with Karl Marx. While Marx sees all of social life, and hence all social change, as emanating from and shaped by the economic 8 RASTAFARI substructure of the society, Weber contends that ideas and the human actors who conceive and countenance them are often independent variables shaping cultural and social change. As sociologist Lewis Coser observes, Ã¢â¬Å"He [Weber] attempted to show that the relations between systems of ideas and social structures wereRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesRichard Moser, eds., The World the Sixties Made: Politics and Culture in Recent America Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., History and September 11th John McMillian and Paul Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited David M. Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape Gerda Lerner, Fireweed: A Political Autobiography Allida M. Black, ed., Modern American Queer History Eric Sandweiss, St. Louis: The Evolution of an American Urban Landscape Sam Wineburg, Historical Thinking and
Monday, December 23, 2019
Voices from the Heartland is an anthology of essays that relates the stories of Oklahoma women. The authors share their experiences about their lives in Oklahoma: childhood experiences, relationships with neighbors, devastating times, life-changing events. The essays are organized under a set of themes, not limiting the contributors to a specific topic. Some of the pieces are light-hearted, such as Julie CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s essay about her left-handedness, while others deal with the struggles the authors have gone through because of their gender. While the gender issues accentuated in the book are conveyed by Oklahoma women, they are relevant to women everywhere, in America, other industrialized nations, as well as developing countries. Women are often confined to a set of ideals and expectations because of one simple fact: they are women. Many of the women who contributed to this book have faced gender stereotyping and discrimination. Instead of allowing traditional social norms to confine them to an unwanted lifestyle, they challenged these conventional ideals, risking failure and facing condemnation from strangers as well as people close to them. People often associate feminism with negativity and pessimism. In Ã¢â¬Å"Feminism is a Dirty Word,Ã¢â¬ Cindy Simon Rosenthal talks about how people refuse to define themselves as a Ã¢â¬Å"feminist.Ã¢â¬ However, the movement does not advocate for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s special privileges. Feminism celebrates social equality and supports the utilization of all talents.
Sunday, December 15, 2019
On top of that recession of 2007-08 and counterfeiting products in the market was the worst exasperations Golf Equipment industry had ever met. Every sports equipment manufacturer needs sales on the peak to grow and sustain In competitive environment. Sales are forecasted on the basis of demand in the market. We will write a custom essay sample on How the Golf Equipment Is Changing or any similar topic only for you Order Now Up to this point Golf Equipment manufacturers were happy but when some Golf Associations and Clubs hopped in, they ruined the demand by imposing limitations on technological design Innovations In club head and golf balls etc. Core Golfers were the biggest source of Golf Equipment sales and revenue. These consisted of the players who played 91% of the total golf rounds played in a year. Core Golfers had their problems as well for instance; hours of practice, instruction from a professional and patience to master all the aspects of Golf were their good excuses and a sales threat to Golf Equipment Industry subsequently. Underlying Drivers that changed Industry: The timestamp between 1997 and mid asses was the era of growth for Golf Equipment Industry but then came then came some underlying drivers that brought a downturn to the sales and growth. These drivers are named and explained below along with the effect they left on this industry. 1. USGS and R A Golf Club of SST. Andrews . Golfers and rounds played 3. Counterfeiting Products 4. Recession USGS and R A Golf Club of SST. Andrews: From asses till early asses, Golf Equipment industry was growing. Lots of innovations were being brought by manufacturers. For instance; size of the golf driver was Increased to minimize the bad effects of efficient hits. Similarly wedges were given more groove for Improving accuracy and balls were redesigned too. These all were for distance and accuracy purpose. These innovations proved good for PIG players 1 OFF as well as Tort Alphas. Average Elegance coverage was Increased Trot 2 yards. Consequently tournament committees started lengthening the golf courses. To protect the historic golf courses from being lengthened as there were space limitations, an association known as USGS (United Stated Golf Association) found CORD (Coefficient of Restitution or spring like effect in lay manÃ¢â¬â¢s language) in this game and this was the start of impositions on Gold equipment technological innovations. CORD is a technical term describing the energy transference between two objects. According to USGS, CORD must not exceed 0. 83 otherwise spring like effect will be produced and that is barred. R A Club of SST. Andrews also had an agreement with SAGA on the limitations imposed. R A introduced another measurement I. E. CT(Characteristic Time) Test which, to avoid spring like effect required Golf ball to remain in contact with face of driver, not more than 257 microseconds. Although CT test was overruled by USGS subsequently but some other rules were brought in relating to driving clubs and balls. Manufacturers were disappointed by the limitations imposed but they were still struggling to find their way. As USGS did not bring rules regarding club head size and club face, Golf Equipment manufacturers started trying to bring hangs in club face area that will produce maximum CT and they were successful. This club face performance was named as MOM (Moment of Inertia). After some alterations, golfers could achieve maximum driving distance. USGS after recognizing this change imposed limitation on MOM to 5900 g-CM with a tolerance of 100 GM- CM. Later on USGS imposed limitations on golf balls and wedges etc. All these impositions affected golf manufacturing industry. Some companies challenged USGS by introducing a driver with 0. 86 CORD but all in vain. This affected the recreational golf players also. USGS answered all the challenges and blames by stating that the purpose of limitations was to avoid excessive reliance on technological advancements rather than skills. Golfers and rounds played: Apart from the fact that SAGA produced lots of obstacles in the growth of Golf Equipment Industry, there were some other factors also which contributed towards this downturn. A survey conducted in 2003 showed that interest of Golfers themselves is also declining. This lack of interest was caused by overall difficulty of the game. Golfers usually donÃ¢â¬â¢t have much time to play as this game requires ample time to practice. Married players have had Job responsibilities as well as family time to be given. Players aged 40 and above were usually having health problems so they could not even play like core Golfers too. Some have even blamed high fee being charged which does not attract them more often. Counterfeiting Products: In mid asses, counterfeiters were giving very tough time to branded companies. Sometimes these people were so good in counterfeiting products that they look very near to the branded ones. Golf Equipment branded companies were shocked when they realized that some auctioneers are selling counterfeited golf equipment for $1 50 o $400, the branded price of which is $2500 to $3000. It was easy for eBay sellers to offer cheaper equipment. Why these counterfeiters came into the picture? There are different reasons, one of them is decisions made by golf executives who were sourcing club heads and giving contracts to manufacturers in china. Counterfeiters were persuading employees to steal molar AT Drained equipment . Black market production was also carried out in overtime. They even knew the packaging details of that equipment too. Steps were taken when six major manufacturers created an alliance to stop counterfeiting operations. A Chinese guy was prisoner for 3 years and fined $58000. Golf Equipment Industry Recession (2007-2008): The biggest factor which affected this industry was recession of 2007-2008. This was a combined effect which basically started with credit and housing industry. Another major effect was on oil prices shooting up from $2. 25 to $3 and then $4 per gallon in 2008. As the golfer that time might be a Job holder as well. He Might be using excessive credit cards. So recession made his credit card bills a huge burden for him and similarly for other golfers too. Rise in Mortgage payments added few more faculties to them. How to cite How the Golf Equipment Is Changing, Papers
Saturday, December 7, 2019
A discussion on one of the most famous and debated arguments for the existence of God presented by an 11th century philosopher, theologian and church leader, Saint Anselm (1033-1109). The following paper argues that the ontological argument for the existence of God is one of the weakest proofs for the existence of God. This paper describes the argument in some detail, analyzes its pros and cons and arrives at a logical conclusion. Immanuel Kant, the famous 18th century philosopher objected to the ontological argument for the existence of God by arguing, being is not a real predicate. In simpler words Kant argued that existence is not an attribute of an object like temperature, shape, size etc.; hence existence cannot be associated with the definition of an object. He has objected to attributing existence to the definition of an object because by doing so, we could prove anything exists by this method. We will write a custom essay sample on Existence of God or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Therefore the existence or non-existence of God cannot have anything to do with the definition of God.While focusing on the weaknesses of the Anselms ontological proof we must not totally disregard the counter-arguments of its supporters. It would, therefore, be appropriate to mention that other philosophers have argued that there are senses in which existence is a predicate and Kants argument that existence is not a predicate cannot be taken for granted.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Pablo Escobar Paper Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria, born December 1, 1949 in Medellin, Colombia, dead December 2, 1993 in Sammi city, in the Colombian gangster and drug? lord, leader of Medellin Cartel. Pablo Escobar began his criminal career in his hometown of Medellin as car thief. He stole cars, stripped them down, and then he sold the parts. He then moved on to cocaine sales and began the construction of his drug empire. Cocaine traffic from Colombia, mainly to the United States made Escobar one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s richest people (in 1989, the Forbes listed him as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s seventh richest man). According to estimates, Medellin Cartel earned 25 billion USD during its heyday. For his huge incomes Escobar bought an exclusive hacienda, a private zoo, airplanes, helicopters, cars, and much more. Escobar was a ruthless man and his motto was Plata o Plomo?, i.e., money (silver) or lead?, which meant that it either be a bribe or death. We will write a custom essay sample on Pablo Escobar specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Pablo Escobar specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Pablo Escobar specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Students writing research paper on Pablo Escobar must mention in their works that with his wealth, Escobar won popularity of a Robin Hood among MedellinÃ¢â¬â¢s poor residents through charitable donations, and there was a period in the early 1980s, when Escobar was politically active and was elected as a deputy to the Parliament. According to sources, he had the ambition to eventually become the President of the country. Justice Minister Rodrigo Lara Bonilla pointed out, however, Escobar as criminal, which led Escobar to have him murdered in 1984, whereupon he went into exile in Panama and Nicaragua. In 1989, he ordered the assassination of presidential candidate Luis Carlos Galan. Medellin Cartel engaged in outright terrorist activities not only against the judiciary but also the civilian population, including blew up an airplane in an attempt to kill a presidential candidate Cesar Gaviria, an attack that killed 110 people (not including Gaviria, who was not on board) and bombed n ewspaper offices. Escobar surrendered eventually to the authorities after being ascertained, through a constitutional amendment, that he could not be extradited from Colombia to the United States. Escobar was placed in La Catedral, a luxurious Ã¢â¬Å"prison,Ã¢â¬ which Escobar himself was designing and choosing. From there he was able to continue to control his crime empire, and after he was threatened to be moved to a regular prison, he had to escape. In order to assist the Colombian police and military troops to find Pablo Special Forces Delta Force from the U.S. were sent to Colombia during the summer of 1992. The hunt for Pablo Escobar could begin. With the help of surveillance and interception, attempts were made to locate his hideout in Medellin. Operational responsibility was led by Colonel Hugo Martinez. Finally managed to trace a call from EscobarÃ¢â¬â¢s cell phone, and could thereby locate him. Upon arrest Escobar and his bodyguard tried to escape but both were shot dead. While many celebrated EscobarÃ¢â¬â¢s death, he still had many admirers; thousands of mourners visited his burial. EscobarÃ¢â¬â¢s widow and two children fled from Colombia and had difficulties getting asylum abroad. His son Juan Pablo has changed his name to Sebastian Marroquin and is an architect in Buenos Aires, Argentina. His reconciliation meeting with the murder victims Lara Bonilla and GalanÃ¢â¬â¢s sons is depicted in documentary Sins of My Father (2009). Free sample research paper on Pablo Escobar is a good beginning for authors with little or no experience.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Definition and Examples of Syncopy in English Definition Syncope is a traditional term in linguistics for a contraction within a word through the loss of a vowel sound or letter, as demonstrated, for example, in the casual pronunciation of cam(e)ra, fam(i)ly, fav(o)rite,Ã mem(o)ry, veg(e)table, and butt(o)ning.Syncope occurs in multisyllabic words:Ã the dropped vowel (which is unstressed) follows a strongly stressed syllable.The term syncope is sometimes used more broadly to refer to any vowel or consonantÃ sound thats commonly omitted in the pronunciation of a word. The standard term for this general process is deletion. Syncope is sometimes indicated in writing by an apostrophe. Deleted sounds are said to be syncopated. Adjective: syncopic. See Examples and Observations below. Also see: ApocopeConnected SpeechElisionHaplologyMetaplasmPhonetics andÃ PhonologyPrinciple of Least EffortProthesis EtymologyFrom the Greek, a cutting off Examples and Observations The term [syncope] is most commonly applied to vowel loss, as in the common British pronunciations of medicine as /medsin/ and of library as /laibri/, but is sometimes extended to consonant loss, as in ever eer and boatswain bosun.(R.L. Trask, A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology. Routledge, 1996)Stress ConditionsWhat are the stress conditions on syncope? The vowel that exhibits syncope must be stressless. The vowel can be at the beginning of the word. It can also occur in the middle of a word before a string of one or more stressless syllables. Thus, a word like opera almost always becomes opra, a word like general, genral, a word like chocolate, choclate. In longer words, syncope is possible as well, and more options surface. For example, respiratory can surface as respirtory or respritory.(Michael Hammond, The Phonology of English: A Prosodic Optimality-Theoretic Approach. Oxford University Press, 1999)Syncope as Deletion of Vowels or Consonants- English spelling can be a pai n, but its also a repository of information about the history of pronunciation. Are we being lazy when we say the name of the third day of the working week? Our ancestors might have thought so. Given that it was once Wodens day (named after the Norse god), the d isnt just for decoration, and was pronounced up until relatively recently. Who now says the t in Christmas? It must have been there at one point, as the messiah wasnt actually called Chris. These are examples of syncope.(David Shariatmadari, Eight Pronunciation Errors That Made the English Language What It Is Today. The Guardian [UK], March 11, 2014)- PARLIAMENT is a syncopic word because the I is silent; MAAM is also a syncopic word because the D disappears. The other words of this nature include:ASN: ASSOCIATIONBOSN: BOATSWAINCOS: BECAUSEFOCSLE: FORECASTLESYMBOLOGY: SYMBOLOLOGY The act or process of making such a contraction is known as syncopation.(O. Abootty, The Funny Side of English. Pustak Mahal, 2004)Syncope in PoetrySyncope . . . is what we call either the omission of a consonant (as in neer) or the dropping of an unstressed vowel which is flanked by consonants:Ill fares the land, to hastening ills a prey(Goldsmith, The Deserted Village)In this line hastening, normally trisyllabic, is reduced by syncope to a disyllable, and the line is thus kept within its decasyllabic confines.Poetic contractions like these are found most often in English verse composed from the Restoration to the end of the 18th century. In the poetry of this period the contractions are often indicated typographically by apostrophes: e.g., hastning.(Paul Fussell, Poetic Meter and Poetic Form, rev. ed. Random House, 1979) Pronunciation: SIN-kuh-pee
Friday, November 22, 2019
Sustainability and Innovation in Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words
Sustainability and Innovation in Business - Essay Example In order to lead in the competition, the company needs to keep on innovating through sustainability (Nidumolu & Et. Al., Ã¢â¬Å"Why Sustainability Is Now The Key Driver Of InnovationÃ¢â¬ ). Firstly, the company should comply with the specifications of the industry by abiding the governmental rules as well as regulations. The company needs to take heed of the emissions in their manufacturing plants and the usage of water. They should invest in new and advanced technological equipments in order to reduce the effect of their manufacturing activities on the environment. Ford needs to adopt measures to trim down the carbon emissions as well as cut down on the usage of water in order to conserve it with the introduction of advanced technological facilities. The company also needs to take care of its value chains in order to make them sustainable. Abiding by the regulations would assist the company to be environmentally conscious which would therefore make them take a notice on their resource consumption activities. They should take steps in order to trim down wastages and consumptions in their internal operations and in their workplace surroundings. After this a proper look should be provided in their arrangement of supply chain so that efficiency is escalated with the help of every individual association that forms a part of their supply chain. This would help the company to get familiar with advanced and new technologies which would pave the way for further innovation in terms of fresh product designs as well as in their business. This step would surely help them to attain sustainability (Ford, Ã¢â¬Å"SustainabilityÃ¢â¬ ; Nidumolu & Et. Al., Ã¢â¬Å"Why Sustainability Is Now The Key Driver Of InnovationÃ¢â¬ ). The amplified emphasis on competence and freshly attained familiarity with technologies and expertise would help them to consider redesigning their offered products and take advantage of the increasing
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Position Paper - Essay Example There are a number of causes to such a feeling for example family problems, loss of a loved one, losing faith in your ideal person, underestimating boss or colleagues, neglecting society, or merely moving away from your house. IÃ¢â¬â¢m narrating this story according to my experience as a victim of this undesired eradicator Ã¢â¬ËAlienationÃ¢â¬â¢. Out of many reasons as philosophers suggest, I was suffering from the neglecting attitude of my colleagues at work place from the time I joined in. Being a student, I took a part time job to cover my expenses. Not being part of the permanent staff, I was mostly excluded from conversations and group discussions. Not having anyone to talk to for the entire day frustrated me regardless of my purpose of joining the workplace which was merely to gain work experience and make a little money for myself. I started wondering why such discrimination? What is the actual reason for their unresponsiveness? I never thought I would do this, but I started questioning my purpose of life. I used to ask myself often, who am I? Why am I here? Who am I supposed to be? I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t discuss this with anyone as I, myself was unsure as to what was happening to me. I lost focus from both, my studies as well as work when one of my teachers realized the despair I was going through. He was the one who figured out that I was suffering from the syndrome of alienation. I was made to leave the job and start community work for the time being. According to Amitai Etzioni, a sociology professor from George Washington University, one such social solution of getting rid of the feeling of alienation is the idea of communitarianism (Etzioni, 1990). Along with the community service, I started to study few subjects like art and culture to keep my mind occupied. Soon I became so fond of it, I started to bring my thoughts and ideas on the paper. My interest grew towards the subjects of humanities and I thought of taking it up as my
Monday, November 18, 2019
Guiding Principles to Rewarding Performance and Performance And Reward Strategies - Essay Example The paper tells that most organizations trying to gain competitive advantage in the market without success attribute their failure to such items as organization structure, poor communication; employee incompetence as well as policies and procedures hence end up redesigning or restructuring the organization to eliminate the problems. Little do they realize that their problems are as a result of poor performance and reward systems and strategies leading to poor performance by employees and the organization as a whole. A high performing organization should develop a performance-driven organizational culture where all employees are encouraged to develop and utilize their capabilities in a way that leads to improved performance. Organizations should thus involve themselves in redesigning their performance and reward systems in a way that reinforces performance and underpins business strategy as well as other organization and human resource strategies such as staffing, development and empl oyee relations. The performance management is a process that enhances organizational performance by developing the performance of individuals and teams in the organization. It entails identifying strategic goals that the organization needs to accomplish, identifying how the management and employees can help in supporting such objectives as well as carrying out performance appraisal and reviews to determine if the objectives are being achieved. Reward systems on the other hand, are used to reinforce individual commitment to performance through reward and recognition programs. However, performance should be measured properly to ensure that the reward programs pay off in terms of business goals. According to eNotes (2012), the management should ensure that performance has actually occurred before rewarding employees and also ensure that individual and group efforts are rewarded. This is to promote individual initiatives and foster group cooperation. 1.1 Purpose of the Report The purpos e of the report is to guide the CEO of DIY stores on how the organization can redesign its performance and reward systems in a way that reinforces performance, increases staff motivation as well as companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to attract and retain the right people in line with the stores mission of achieving a more dynamic, performance-focused corporate culture. 1.2 Objectives The objective of the report is to design a performance and reward system that integrates business strategy and HR strategy. It is also to create a working environment that ensures just, fair and ethical treatment of employees. It also aims to develop a program that recognizes and rewards exceptional performance and ensures that reward systems are market based, equitable and cost effective. It is also to ensure that the needs of all stakeholders are met by developing a total reward system. It is also aimed at achieving high performance, customer service, high profits and ensuring product availability and minimisat ion of losses. 1.3 Background DIY store (DIYS) is a chain of large warehouse-style stores selling DIY equipment and is also a wholly-owned subsidiary of a larger retail group. It runs 250 stores across the country serving over a million customers a week and employs 12,000 people. Despite having a well established performance management and reward system clearly understood by all employees, it still experiences low morale, poor performance, high staff turnover,
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Product Placement On Tv Marketing Essay Product placement is a promotional tactic used by business to advertise there products. Business pay a fee or provide there services in exchange for there products to be displayed/featured into content such as movies and TV shows. The use of product placement has both a negative (con) and positive (pro) impact on consumers. For example, the cons regarding the issue include that product placement invade the content space, builds expectation on what product individuals should buy, removes creativity from the program and adds more editorial review, effects consumer choice and sheds false light on products. However, in the majority of cases product placement can have a beneficial effect on consumers. Product placement pays for content, provides more realism to the movie (instead of a plain label, it says coke), eliminates the need for commercials and introduces new products in an entertaining way. Ethical code of product placement is a very complicated topic. A lot of elder people consider product placement to be not ethical and unfair, because the product is not advertised directly and the audience is not notifies about the fact of advertising. The issue of Product placement could have been introduced because of the worlds evolving technology. Advances in technology (remote controls, DVDS and TiVO) have made it increasingly easier for consumers to avoid traditional advertising messages. On TiVO you can fast-forward past commercials, and the use of the remote controls has allowed viewers the ability to change the channel at the sight of a commercial. This would ultimately mean that the use of this advertising medium would be unnecessary, and promotion wise would not benefit the business. As a result, brands would have had to find an alternative way to attract consumer attention. Additionally, the issue of product placement could have also been introduced because it can be seen that what the media tells us is what is popular, and products which are being promoted by celebrities are more likely to become popular. Therefore, businesses utilize this idea and each appearance of a leading brand reaffirms a products star-status an d helps maintain its leadership image. Furthermore, some examples of the success of product placement include: There are numerous solutions to the issue of product placement on TV. If consumers find product placement discouraging to children especially when junk food is being promoted-businesses could encourage young people and their families to eat healthier foods and be more active in order to support their well-being. This strategy will earn the respect of customers, as well as benefiting the business financially. Additionally, companies should not direct advertising at children but encourage healthier dietary choices, and that while this is a step in the right direction, consumers need to manage what there children are watching. Businesses can not be accounted for what parents allow there children to watch. Another solution, because product promotion is a debatable subject, is to let consumers find it difficult to disagree or agree on whether they want to watch product promotion. Different consumers have different views on product promotion and in-order to have a favorable result on both a business and consumer level, they must communicate. A step in the right direction would be stating whether the program contains product promotion (in print). Then, Consumers can decide whether they wish to watch the program. Furthermore, Product promotion is not necessarily a big issue and most consumers enjoy the realism that the products add to the movie. The only real issue is when smoking, alcohol, drugs and unhealthy food are glamorized and made to look acceptable. This type of promotion should be banned. It may not prove favorable for the business, but once consumers recognize that the company respects there health and wellbeing, they will trust businesses and ultimately the business will benefit. Furthermore, business should only advertise what is Good. placement will be allowed in films, drama, sports and light entertainment programming, but will still be monitored, and restricted for certain types of programming, such as childrens shows, and public service television. The issue I have chosen is unhealthy food sold and directed to children. Junk food advertising is a kind of product marketing which works by bombarding children with ads for drinks and foods of dubious nutritional value, full of sugar and fat. Products may be marketed to kids through promotions (e.g. Celebrity endorsements and the use of cartoon characters), price (Cheaper prices to make them more appealing to young people), place (school canteens and vending machines and incorporating packaging which is appealing to young people. This type of marketing has a negative effect on children, as Food advertising directly influences childrens choices and increases their requests of unhealthy foods. Additionally unhealthy food sold and directed to children impacts on the quality of childrens diets and can ultimately affect their weight. Furthermore, once food advertising has influenced the choices of children, health issues such as obesity, heart attacks and cholesterol may result. However, Food advertising is a necessary revenue stream without ad revenues from food companies, TV channels couldnt afford to make kids programming. This would have a negative effect on consumers (kids would suffer). There are numerous reasons why unhealthy food sold and directed to children has become such a serious issue in todays growing society. The main reason why unhealthy food sold and directed to children has become an issue is due to Money. The snack food industry in market-driven societies such as Australia generates billions of dollars in revenue each year. The market for processed snack foods is enormous, and a number of large corporations compete rigorously to capture larger shares of the snack food industry. This type of competition would mean that there would be a greater proportion of business competing thus the amount of food being advertised would would reach peaks causing an even bigger issue. Furthermore, the different advertising medians have developed over the past years; children were only commonly exposed to promotion of unhealthy foods only through television advertising. However, now children are exposed to Promotions including premium offers, celebrity endorsements, the use of cartoon characters, health and nutrient claims, product placements Sponsoring TV programs, sporting events, fundraisers and establishing or donating money to charity. Additionally, the kids whose parents who do not monitor and encourage their kids to eat healthy foods are more susceptible to these types of advertisements, and these children grow up to like the taste of the additives, and preservatives and ultimately influence there purchases as future adult customers. Solutions to unhealthy food sold and directed to children. Children and young people are particularly susceptible to the power of brands and advertising. Selling and Advertising unhealthy food is socially damaging and has a negative influence on our well-being. If business can advocate healthy eating, and can promote protecting the well-being of children and young people then consumers can feel more reliant on trusting businesses, likewise this strategy can be seen as a marketing campaign, and a way of promoting the business. This will have favorable results both ways. The amount junk food advertising should be limited. While an advertising ban alone will not eliminate the problem of obesity its a sensible first step that has the support of health experts, including doctors, community groups and, most importantly, parents. Furthermore, if business whish to continue advertising, then instead of offering toys when purchasing a meal, they could offer a choice of yogurt, fruit cup etc. In conclusion, parents should teach kids to discern what is marketing and what isnt, Limit the hours kids spend watching TV, and encourage their kids to eat healthy foods. If kids are taught in there early stages of life then they will not purchase junk food in the first place. Education is the key. If the media has proven to migrate decisions about health to children and adolescents, then business can use this to there advantage. Business can promote contributing to some of the negative affects which impact children and adolescents. You dont really come to this realization until your own children are in school. One step at a time, wake county schools in the elementary grades has removed soda and junk food machines and offers at least one piece of fruit on their lunch menu. Only teachers lounges have those machines in some schools, not that it is much better because they should be an example to the students.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The Themes of Love and Relationships in Pop Music The life of an adolescent varies from day to day. For every good thing, most likely there is a bad thing. This doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always happen, but this constant changing of moods can greatly affect the stress one feels. Adolescents will look for some form of relief, this often being music. Turning on the radio while doing homework can help people stay relaxed and get through an assignment. Drifting off for thirty minutes while you listen to your favorite band on a pair of headphones can be the cure also. It is not what an individual turns on that matters, as long as it is what they like. Not everyone is going to listen to Top 40 music, but a majority will so we focus on the top five songs. The top five songs of today do not differ that much thematically from when I was fourteen with the most common theme being love. The re-invasion of pop music has brought out the theme of love and relationships even more so then ever. If a songwriter has Ã¢â¬Å"writerÃ¢â¬â¢s blockÃ¢â¬ , then the simple solution is to write a love song. Ã¢â¬Å"All I want is you (Come over here baby). All I want is you (You make me go crazy)... IÃ¢â¬Ëm gonna love you right...Ã¢â¬ (Aguilera), is part of the chorus to Christina AguileraÃ¢â¬â¢s song Ã¢â¬Å"Come on OverÃ¢â¬ . The attraction to this song to girls is in thinking that they could be in the situation of the female character in the song, finding the perfect guy and spending time with him. For guys, the attraction comes because a beautiful girl is singing this and they can pretend that she is singing to them. Something similar is also found in the song Ã¢â¬Å"DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t Really MatterÃ¢â¬ by Janet Jackson. In this song she is stating all the things she loves about a certain individual. She can live with his imperfections and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care what a nyone else cares. Ã¢â¬Å"DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really matter what the eye is seeing. Cause IÃ¢â¬â¢m in love with the inner being. And it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really matter what they believe. What matters to me is youÃ¢â¬â¢re nutty, nutty, nutty for me.Ã¢â¬ (Janet Jackson) This song is good in that it is a love song unlike many out there today. In this song we see that the main character loves her man because of who he is.
Monday, November 11, 2019
As a Health Educator working for an international health organization, I would conduct a need assessment process that aims to determine the problems related to how the trash is managed in the community. I would do so by visiting the factories of different industries ranging from pharmaceuticals to FMCGs, where I would analyze how the waste material is dumped or discarded by them. Secondly, I would conduct surveys through questionnaires and informal interviews with people of households and shopkeepers that would focus on how they discard the waste, why do they do so, how often, and what do they lack in effectively disposing of the waste. After gathering enough information about this, I would ascertain the problems or unwanted outcomes that are created by improperly discarding the waste materials. For example, who are affected the most, what affects them precisely, and the extent to which they are affected negatively by improper trash management. As far as the paper products are concerned, we sloppily use them and do not utilize them to their fullest. For instance, a note book or a writing pad often goes into the trash bin with lots of unused pages. Instead of continuously making new paper products such as, copies or tissue papers, we can recycle them and save a great amount of time and cost. Other technological devices and instruments are no exception, and can also be recycled and refurbished which results in saving time, costs, and energy Ã¢â¬â both by the producers and consumers. Now letÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about the ways and procedures that are used to recycle the products. The resources are very much available within the community; nevertheless, if someone is lacking then we would provide them the resources to cope with the problem. One way of doing so is Curbside recycling, which is the process where the residents or subscribers are provided with trash cans and are asked to confirm their recyclables, sort them out separately, put them in the bin outside their home, and keep them clean. The recyclers would come, pick the trash or materials and take them away. Recycling drop-off centre is another technique where people can drop-off the used products or materials that are listed or guided to them to a certain location, point, or centre from where the material is taken away for recycling. Yard waste recycling encourages people to bring and deposit their yard debris or green waste to the centers for the purpose of minimizing the load on landfills and providing recycled fertilizers for the use in public parks and other areas. People can find out waste or debris and can deposit or pile it up in their backyard (Selvon, 2008). And finally, ECO-CELL is another way of recycling the technological devices or instruments such as, cell phones, computers, and printers. Answer Ã¢â¬â 2 I would involve the community in the needs assessment process by creating a buzz among them about the alarming situation of waste management and its hazardous impacts over the community. I would initiate campaigns that would be designed and carried out against the improper trashing and polluting the environment; moreover, those campaigns would create awareness among the people about how they are affected, what is the better way of trashing, and how they can be benefitted from that. People would be asked to search and tell us about the problems they and other people face in the community, and what has worsened than before. Several gifts and prize money would be given as an incentive to the people to come and participate in the need assessment program and overcome the issue of improper trash management. References Selvon. M. (2008). Recycling Yard Waste is a Great Composting Solution. Retrieved on July 28, 2010. From http://ezinearticles. com/? Recycling-Yard-Waste-is-a-Great-Composting-Solution&id=1150298
Saturday, November 9, 2019
?American literature is any written work of art that is created in the United States. American literature is like all literature, it has literary experiences and contextual history of America. It depicts how America has changed is still changing today. American literature has changed over time just like most canons of literary works. The uniqueness of American literature is that America from its beginning had a special philosophy of life and freedom. The special philosophy of life and freedom that made American literature so unique was reflected in its writings. Americans believed and had faith that God was and is the given of all our rights and freedom. We as Americans had faith in ourselves that we could succeed in anything that we try doing. The literature that we Americans wrote made life worth living because it was displayed for the world to read and understand that life was what we made it. Also by Americans having the ability to spring back from diversity made life worth living and George Washington was a perfect example of this. Literary canon is basically a suggested list of readings that belongs to a country or a certain period in time. Literary canon contains literary works that is mainly by authors who are accepted as an authority in their field and their writings constituting a serious body of literature in any given language. The works that are collected that is included in a literary canon is approved largely by cultural and academic institutions and is observed as literature of that language. Literary workÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity is not based only on the quality, but on the relevance of what matters to the context historically, socially, and artistically. Literary canon relate very well to what is going on in society because of what is most important at that time work is being written. The context of the society, whether it is historical, social, or artistic, that is basically the topic. Ethnic writers express the special challenges of realism, naturalism, and regionalism within the American literary experiences. Realism labels a movement in English, European, and American literature that gathered force from the 1930s to the end of the century. Realism attempted to record life as it was lived rather than life as it ought to be lived or had been lived in times past. William Dean Howells stated that realism Ã¢â¬Å"is nothing more and nothing less than the truthful treatment of material. Ã¢â¬ Present-day literary theorists are probably more aware of what may be called Ã¢â¬Å"the crisis of representationÃ¢â¬ -the difference between representation and the thing represented-than were these realists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Naturalism is understood by some as an extension or intensification of realism. It introduces characters from the fringes and depths of society whose fates are determined by degenerate heredity, a sordid environment, and/or a good deal of bad luck. Regionalism writing, another expression of the realist impulse, resulted from the desire both to preserve a record of distinctive ways of life before industrialization dispersed or homogenized them and to come to terms with the harsh realities that seemed to be replacing these early and allegedly happier times. By the end of the twentieth century, every region of the country had a Ã¢â¬Å"local coloristÃ¢â¬ to immortalize its natural, social, and linguistic features. Ethnic writers define literature as literature that is written by people of a different culture, language, religion, or race. It differs from the canon of traditional American literature because literary canon is a list of work from American instead of from a different race or religion. The historical, socio-political, and cultural topics that might be covered by ethnic writers would be slavery and how the slaves were treated during that time. Slavery is a topic that can be covered under all three. Government issues are a topic that could be covered under socio-political. The debate against government issues such as health care and taxes could be something that ethnic writers could write about. It does not differ from the canon of traditional American literature because the writings have to be by authors who are accepted as an authority in their field and their writings of literature in any given language.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Ethical Leadership its Variations Abstract Researchers have concentrated efforts to uncovering aspects and conceptions of ethical leadership models that could be used in contemporary organizations to not only ensure leadership effectiveness, but also enhance follower development and realization of organizational goals.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Ethical Leadership its Variations specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this light, the present analysis contributes to our understanding of one such leadership model known as ethical leadership and its variations, which include servant, spiritual and authentic leadership. The careful and exhaustive comparisons done between these leadership theories and other conventional leadership models such as transformational and charismatic leadership give credence to the fact that leader emphasis on ethical dimensions of leadership generates beneficial personal and organizational outcomes. It has also been demonstrated that value-based leadership projected in servant, spiritual and authentic leadership is predicated on shared, robustly internalized values that are promoted and acted upon by the leader, but which goes a long way to ensure leadership effectiveness, positive organizational outcomes in terms of competencies development and productivity, and follower development. Research into the servant, spiritual and authentic leadership models have demonstrated some shared, common features as well as broad differences. Although these theories may represent a paradigm shift of leadership approaches into the future, more systematic and quantitative research is needed to harmonize the varying conceptions and other grey areas of the theories discussed comprehensively in this paper. Indeed, it has been noted that the popular appeal of these evolving leadership approaches is yet to translate into credible academic respectability. Introduction Despite sustained attention by scholars and prac titioners to the wide discipline of leadership, discussions of ethical leadership in public, private and even nonprofit organizations still remains largely anecdotal and highly normative. However, as noted by Rubin, Doedorff Brown (2010), this is not to imply that the study of ethical leadership has been disregarded in its entirety.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To the contrary, scholars, driven by ethics scandals and subsequent demise of companies like Enron, World-Com, Lehman Brothers and Tyco (Millar, Delves Harris, 2010; Sendjaya et al, 2008), have concentrated efforts to uncovering aspects and conceptions of ethical leadership, contributing to rich, descriptive information on the field (Rubin et al, 2010). The present paper purposes to examine different conceptions of ethical leadership, including servant, spiritual and authentic theories, and to compare and contrast them with the transformational and charismatic theories with a view to bring into light how these conceptions could be employed to occasion important organizational outcomes. Ethical Leadership: Background Definition Although practitioners and scholars are of the opinion that ethics is the core of leadership (Xiayong, Fen Jiannong, 2011), and while the fundamental importance of leadership Ã¢â¬â particularly top management Ã¢â¬â in promoting and sustaining ethical conduct in organizations has long been understood (Brown Mitchell, 2010), it is only in the past decade that ethical leadership has been methodically studied from a descriptive and predictive social scientific perspective (Millar et al, 2010). Earlier studies as noted by Brown Mitchell (2010) looked into the effects of leadership behaviors without developing formalized theoretical conceptions. However, it was not until early 2000s when TreviÃ ±o and colleagues cited in Brown Mitchell (2010) engaged in the first formal explorations focused on developing an all-encompassing definition of what ethical leadership entails. Their qualitative studies, as demonstrated by these authors, revealed that ethical leaders were best depicted along two interrelated continuums: moral person and moral manager. Later, Brown et al (2005) cited in Xiaoyong et al (2011) further illuminated the conceptualization to develop a formal definition of ethical leadership as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement, and decision makingÃ¢â¬ (p. 362). Below, this paper narrows its focus to critically examine three variants of ethical leadership, namely: servant leadership, spiritual leadership, and authentic leadership.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Ethical Leadership its Variations specif ically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Servant Leadership Definition Conceptions Robinson (2009) cited in Waterman (2011) suggests that the phrase Ã¢â¬Ëservant leadershipÃ¢â¬â¢ in its contemporary perspective Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦was developed by Robert Greenleaf (1977), but the idea can be traced to antiquity and is associated with a range of religious beliefsÃ¢â¬ (p. 24). Due to modernization of societies, however, the concept of service has evolved from just representing the religious connotation of Ã¢â¬Ëservice to othersÃ¢â¬â¢ to a leadership approach based on not only showing care and concern for other people (Waterman, 2011), but also demonstrating the desire to build and develop them personally and professionally (Taylor et al, 2007). Holistically, therefore, servant leadership entails Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦helping others to accomplish shared objectives by facilitating individual development, empowerment, and collective work that is consistent with t he health and long-term welfare of followersÃ¢â¬ (Yukl, 2009, p. 420). From the systematic review of literature (e.g., Yukl, 2009; Taylor et al, 2007; Sendjaya et al, 2008), several conceptions of servant leadership have crystallized, namely: integrity; altruism; humility; empathy and healing; personal growth; fairness and justice, and; empowerment. Ebener OÃ¢â¬â¢Connell (2010) suggest that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦a servant leader begins by acting with integrity, creating supportive relationships, and helping others to growÃ¢â¬ (p. 320). As demonstrated by Page Wong (2005), servant leadership is associated with such inner qualities as humility, integrity, fairness, altruism and a servantÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude, which are reinforced by the development of a highly moral and spiritual character. Effects of Servant Leadership Available literature demonstrates that organizations are increasingly searching for ethical and effective leadership that not only serve others, but invests in their de velopment and executes a shared vision (Sendjaya et al, 2008; Page Wong, 2005). According to Ebener OÃ¢â¬â¢Connell (2010), Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦servant leaders encourage people to go above and beyond their own immediate interests by performing organizational citizenship behaviors [which] are defined as altruistic, prosocial activities that have been shown to enhance organizational performanceÃ¢â¬ (p. 315).Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Irving (2005) postulates that servant leadership behaviors are intrinsically correlated to the effectiveness of teams in the realization of shared objectives or goals. Extant research on leadership demonstrates that when team members acknowledge servant leadership, they are bound to appear as whole people and trustworthy professional co-leaders Ã¢â¬â fundamental ingredients in building effective teams (Ebener OÃ¢â¬â¢Connell, 2010). Greenleaf (1977) cited in Sendjaya et al (2008) was of the opinion that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦servant leadership is demonstrated whenever those served by servant leaders are positively transformed in multiple dimensions (e.g. emotionally, intellectually, socially, and spiritually) into servant leaders themselvesÃ¢â¬ (p. 408). This transformation takes place collectively and repeatedly, and in turn, inspires positive changes in individuals, organizations and communities. Research on Servant Leadership Researchers and practitioners have reported a shift in the leadership paradigm for the 21st century (Taylor et al, 2007) from the traditional leadership approaches to an emerging leadership approach that appears more relevant and timely in the present context (Sendjaya et al, 2008). GreenleafÃ¢â¬â¢s (1977) seminal work on servant leadership not only brought the construct to the public discourse in the mid 1970s (Irving, 2005), but also stimulated interest from other researchers who have continued to expand on the topic and to shed light on various conceptions that surround servant leadership (Yukl, 2009). According to Irving (2005), Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the work surrounding servant leadership from the early 1990s through 2003 focused on identifying themes that could help to operationalize the concept of servant leadershipÃ¢â¬ (p. 2). To quote a few of these works, Graham (1991) cited in Irving (2005) stressed the inspirational and moral dimensions of servant leadership, while Buchen (1998) suggested that self-identity, capability for rec iprocity, relationship building, and obsession with the future were fundamental themes of servant leadership. Spears (1998) also cited in Irving (2005) Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦emphasized the dimensions of listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment, and community buildingÃ¢â¬ (p. 2). Farling et al (1999) cited in Sendjaya et al (2008) argued for the importance of servant leaders to demonstrate vision, influence, service to others, integrity, and trust, while Laub (1999) cited in Irving (2005) put forward the concepts of valuing people, developing people, participating in building community, exhibiting authenticity, providing leadership, and sharing leadership as essential for servant leaders. Limitations of Servant Leadership It has been suggested that although the literature Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦on servant leadership have increased in the past few years, there has still been limited research conducted in a systematic, quantitative man nerÃ¢â¬ (Taylor et al, 2007 p. 415). Indeed, the popular appeal of servant leadership as an evolving leadership approach has not translated into academic respectability, in large part due to the under-representation of the theory in major textbooks on management, leadership and organizational behavior. Due to the lack of a significant research base on servant leadership, Sendjaya et al (2008) postulate that the model is still been faced with vague psychometric properties, which are fundamentally important for further development and validation of the approach. It is also generally felt that many organizations that are perceived to practice servant leadership are hierarchical in nature and, consequently, the power distance between the servant leaders and their followers or other team members may not be conducive to the elements or themes of servant leadership discussed in this paper (Ebener OÃ¢â¬â¢Connell, 2010). Spiritual Leadership Definition Conceptions Fry (2003) argues th at Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the purpose of spiritual leadership is to create vision and value congruence across the strategic, empowered team, and individual levels and, ultimately, to foster higher levels of organizational commitment and productivityÃ¢â¬ (p. 693). Unlike classic organizational, administrative and leadership theories, spiritual leadership can be defined as encompassing the values, attitudes, and behaviors that are perceived as essential to fundamentally motivate people so that they are able to develop a sense of spiritual survival at work through calling and membership (Karadog, 2009). Extant research demonstrates that although the conceptions of spiritual leadership are many and varied (Carter, 2009), they revolve around the issues of spiritual beliefs (e.g., hope and faith in God); transcendence of self, manifesting in an active sense of calling or destiny; engagement in spiritual practices (e.g., praying, meditating, and reading scripture), and; conviction that an indivi dualÃ¢â¬â¢s activities have meaning and value beyond the immediate economic benefits or self-gratification (Ferguson Miliman, 2008). Consequently, this paper will utilize one construct proposed by Fry (2003) cited in Freeman (2011), which Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦explains spirituality in leadership within an intrinsic motivation model that incorporates vision, altruistic love/faith; theories of workplace spirituality and spiritual survival; and the organizational outcomes of commitment and productivityÃ¢â¬ (p. 122). Research on Spiritual Leadership Fry Matherly (n.d.) are in agreement that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦issues regarding workplace spirituality have been receiving increased attention in the organizational sciences and the implications of workplace spirituality for leadership theory, research, and practice make this a fast growing area of new research and inquiry by scholarsÃ¢â¬ (p. 3). Research has demonstrated that spiritual leadership not only lead to valuable personal results such a s enhanced positive human health and psychological happiness but that it also conveys improved employee satisfaction, loyalty and commitment while reducing instances of absenteeism and turnover (Carter, 2009). Indeed, Kaplan Norton (2004) cited in Fry Matherly (n.d.) argue that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦a high degree of workplace spirituality and spiritual leadership, as a driver of organizational commitment and productivity, is essential to optimizing organizational performanceÃ¢â¬ (p. 3). Consequently, many research studies (e.g., Ferguson Miliman, 2008; Freeman, 2011; Fry Cohen, 2009; Fry Matherly, n.d.) conclude that spiritual leadership basically entails motivating and inspiring employees through a transcendent vision and a culture that is intrinsically grounded on altruistic values to produce a more inspired, satisfied, committed and productive workforce. Limitations of Spiritual Leadership Researchers have identified several major weaknesses that must be addressed for spiritual l eadership to gain acceptance within the scientific community as a newly emerging paradigm. Ferguson Miliman (2008) note that there exist a lack of accepted conceptual definition of what spirituality actually entails, while Fry Cohen (2008) note that there are inadequate measurement tools to evaluate the thematic conceptions of spirituality. Limited theoretical development and legal concerns have also been identified as genuine challenges for the development of a leadership paradigm that is rooted in spirituality (Fry Matherly, n.d.). Authentic Leadership Definition and Conceptions The term authenticity Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦implies that one acts in accord with the true self, expressing oneself in ways that are consistent with inner thoughts and feelingsÃ¢â¬ (Avolio Gardner, 2005, p. 320). The recognition of the self-referential nature of authenticity, therefore, is fundamental to comprehending the construct of authentic leadership. Avolio et al (2004) cited in Avolio Gardner (2005) describe authentic leaders as individuals who are profoundly conscious Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦of how they think and behave and are perceived by others as being aware of their own and othersÃ¢â¬â¢ values/moral perspectives, knowledge, and strengths; aware of the context in which they operate; and who are confident, hopeful, optimistic, resilient, and of high moral characterÃ¢â¬ (p. 321). The related conception of authentic leadership is defined by academics as a process that draws from both positive psychological capabilities and a well matured organizational context, which results in both superior self-awareness and self-regulated positive behaviors and actions on the part of leaders and their followers (Avolio Garner, 2005), fostering positive modeling, self-development, and the attainment of sustainable and veritable performance (Rowe Guerrero, 2011; Blausten, 2009). Effects of Authentic Leadership The effects of authentic leadership are many and varied (Blausten, 2009), and include : development of positive psychological capital and positive moral perspective (Rowe Guerrero, 2011); development of leader and follower self-awareness in terms of values, cognitions, and emotions; development of leader and follower self-regulation in terms of internalized behavior, balanced processing, and authentic behavior (Avolio Gardner, 2005); development of leadership processes and behaviors such as positive modeling, personal and social identification, emotional contagion, self determination and positive social exchanges (Sendjaya et al, 2008); follower development, and; veritable and sustainable organizational performance (Rubin et al, 2010). It is also generally felt that authentic leadership institutes open, transparent, trusting and genuine relationships between the leaders and followers. Research on Authentic Leadership A number of scholars have undertaken research on authentic leadership. One of the pioneers of these studies was Bill George, who posited Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦that being yourself; being the person you were created to be rather than developing an image or persona of a leader is the way to restore confidence in business organizations after Enron and Arthur AndersenÃ¢â¬ (Sparrowe, 2005, p. 420). When formulating their model of authentic leadership development, Luthans Avolio (2003) cited in Sparrowe (2005) argue that the kind of leadership that can reinstate confidence from the challenge of declining hope in organizational leaders and their associates is by engaging individuals who are true to themselves, and whose transparency and accountability in either public or private discourse positively transforms or develops the followers into leaders themselves. Limitations of Authentic Leadership While Walumbwa et al (2008) report that it is often difficult to measure some aspects of authentic leadership, Avolio Garner (2005) argue that more research is needed Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦on the relationship between authentic leadership and the levels of s elf-awareness of leaders and followersÃ¢â¬ (p. 334). These authors also report a dearth in research relating to evaluating the direct consequence of the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s positive psychological capital on associates and their mediating outcomes on sustained organizational productivity and performance. Similarities Differences of Servant, Spiritual Authentic Approaches of Leadership Research into the three approaches of leadership has demonstrated some shared, common features of the approaches as well as broad differences. Among the similarities, Avolio Gardener (2005) argue that leaders in the three approaches must exhibit positive moral perspective and demonstrate self-awareness in terms of values, cognitions, and emotions. Similarly, all approaches advocate for self-determination, follower self-awareness and follower development (Sendjaya et al, 2008), not mentioning that they share a strong emphasis on the ethical dimension of leadership (Brown Mitchell, 2010). Sendjaya et a l (2008) argue that both the Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦servant leadership and FryÃ¢â¬â¢s (2003) spiritual leadership models appeal to virtuous leadership practices and intrinsic motivating factors to cultivate a sense of meaning, purpose, and interconnectedness in the workplaceÃ¢â¬ (p. 404). These authors suggest that both leadership paradigms endeavor to facilitate a holistic, integrated workplace where people engage in significant, meaningful and intrinsically motivating work, and where leadership orientation finds its expression or meaning and purpose of life through service. Indeed, available literature demonstrates that the spiritual leadershipÃ¢â¬â¢s conceptions of vision, altruistic love, and hope/faith (Fry Matherly, n.d.) are also embedded in the conceptions of servant leadership (Sendjaya et al, 2008; Freeman, 2011). Given the discussed similarities, it would be conceivable to assert that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦servant leadership is embedded in spiritual leadership in that servant lead ership is a manifestation of altruistic love in the action of pursuing transcendent vision and being driven to satisfy needs for calling and membershipÃ¢â¬ (Sendjaya et al, 2008, p. 404). Conversely, it would be equally conceivable to argue that spiritual leadership is grounded on the motivational basis for servant leaders to engage followers in authentic and thoughtful ways that transform their behavioral orientation to be what they are competent of becoming (Freeman, 2011). Sendjaya et al (2008) posit that servant leaders have the capacity to lead authentically since their leadership originates from the Ã¢â¬ËbeingÃ¢â¬â¢ as evidenced in their unswerving display of humility, integrity, accountability, security and vulnerability. It is important to note that the causal spiritual leadership model developed by Fry (2003) cited in Sendjaya et al (2008) Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦identifies follower needs for spiritual survival as expressed through calling and membership as outcome variables, whereas calling and membership are inherent in servant leadership behaviorsÃ¢â¬ (p. 405). Consequently, it can be argued that spirituality is one of the many facets of servant leadership, but there exist other equally fundamental facets such as self-sacrificial servant-hood behavior, empowerment, collective work, and moral values that are not evidently expressed in many spiritual leadership models (Sendjaya et al, 2008). It has been observed that a critical aspect of spiritual leadership is the need to be authentic, hence the relationship between spiritual leadership and authentic leadership. Spiritual leadership is also related to servant leadership in that it intrinsically focuses on Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦serving others and emphasizing the development of peopleÃ¢â¬ (Ferguson Milliman, 2008, p. 448). Among the differences, Avolio Garner (2005) notes that internalized self regulation is demonstrated in both spiritual and authentic leadership, while authentic behavior is demonstrated in servant as well as authentic leadership, but not in spiritual leadership. Equally, it can be argued that spirituality is a significant source of motivation for servant leaders but is not highlighted in the authentic leadership model (Sendjaya et al, 2008). Personal and social identification on the part of the leader is present in authentic leadership but vaguely demonstrated in both servant and spiritual leadership. Equally, positive social exchange is clearly outlined as a conception of authentic leadership but not for spiritual and servant leadership (Avolio Gardner, 2005). The conception of follower self-awareness in terms of cognitions and emotions is clearly outlined in both authentic and spiritual leadership, but is not considered in the servant leadership. Lastly, it has been noted in the literature that the conception of relational transparency is carried with much weight in authentic leadership but not in the other two leadership approaches (Avolio Gardner, 2005) Comp aring the Approaches with Transformational Charismatic Theories Defining Transformational Leadership Burns (1978) cited in Sagnak (2010) defined transformational leadership as moral leadership, where Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦leaders and followers further take each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation and morality to higher levelsÃ¢â¬ (p. 1137). Bass (1985) also cited in Sagnak (2010) further advanced the transformational leadership approach to include the aspects of idealized influence (charisma) on the part of the leader, inspirational motivation, self-fulfillment, intellectual simulation, self-actualization, and personalized consideration. A transformational leader, according to Engelbrecht et al (2005), aims to fundamentally alter the values, beliefs and attitudes of followers. Defining Charismatic Leadership Weber (1947) cited in Fry (2003) defined charismatic leadership as any approach that demonstrates: strong desire to influence others; ability to act as a role model for the beliefs and values that followers need to adopt; ability to articulate ideological goals with moral overtones; ability to communicate high expectations and demonstrate confidence in followersÃ¢â¬â¢ abilities to meet and surpass these expectations; ability to arouse task-relevant motivation by tapping followersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs for esteem, power, and affiliation, and; ability to link the identity of followers (employees) to the collective identity of the organization. A Discussion of the Similarities Differences Leadership scholars have often asserted that servant leadership is somewhat similar to transformational leadership in that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦both approaches encourage leaders and followers to raise one another to higher levels of motivation and moralityÃ¢â¬ (Sendjaya et al, 2008, p. 403). However, these authors note that servant leaders are theoretically different from BassÃ¢â¬â¢s (1985) transformational leaders in that not only are servant leaders more likely than transformational leaders to exhibit the natural inclination to serve disadvantaged and marginalized people, but the outcomes of enhanced motivation and commitment demonstrated by transformational leaders Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦may not necessarily benefit followers as there is nothing in the transformational leadership model that says that leaders should serve followers for the good of followersÃ¢â¬ (p. 403). However, it should be noted that as is the case with servant leadership, the transformational leadership model outlined by Burns (1978) cited in Sendjaya et al (2008) required leaders to lead the followers for their own ultimate good. While the role of servant leaders may be seen in the light of serving followers; that of a transformational leader may be perceived in the light of encouraging followers to pursue organizational goals and objectives (Sendjaya et al, 2008). Another distinction closely related to this is that while transformational leadership deals primarily with Ã¢â¬Ëperformance beyond expectatio nsÃ¢â¬â¢, servant leadership is fundamentally concerned with entrenching the followersÃ¢â¬â¢ holistic moral and ethical development (Taylor et al, 2005). Whetstone (2002) observes that whereas a transformational leader may be instrumental and manipulative in nature, a servant leader is bound to be manipulated by the followers. Taylor et al (2007) suggest that although servant leadership may be perceived as an extension of transformational leadership, it ends up valuing people and treating them as ends rather than means while many transformational theories treats people as means to achieve organizational objectives. However, the authors note that the followersÃ¢â¬â¢ emotional attachment to the leader in servant leadership, along with the motivational arousal of followers as an outcome of the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and actions, is fundamentally considered a consequence of transformational leadership. Carter (2009) argues that spiritual leadership shares some convergent element s with transformational leadership in that it is not only linked to social responsibility, integrity and stability, but it shapes the values, beliefs and practices of followers, and provides overall meaning to their own existence. Some central components of both spiritual and transformational leadership theories, according to Sagnak (2010), include the commitment of the manager to a higher cause or purpose and the articulation of meaningful values on a deeper level to organizational members. Additionally, Avolio Gardner (2005) posit that the conception of follower development is a focal component in servant, spiritual, and authentic leadership but is vaguely outlined in transformational and charismatic leadership models. As observed by Avolio Gardner (2005), transformational and authentic leadership are related in that authenticity serves as a moral compass by which the objectives and intentions of transformational leaders can be holistically determined. However, these authors not e that although authentic leadership can encompass all the other leadership approaches (e.g., transformational, charismatic, servant, and spiritual), it may not be charismatic to the extent demonstrated by transformational leadership as authentic leaders must work hard and lead with purpose, meaning and values to build lasting relationship with followers. To the contrary, Sagnak (2010) observes that transformational leaders Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦may be charismatic in their opinion of the followers and thereby inspire them; they meet emotional needs of each employee and/or provide intellectual simulationÃ¢â¬ (p. 1137). This distinction demonstrates that being an authentic leader does not automatically imply that the leader is transformational. Brown Mitchell (2010) posit that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦transformational and charismatic leadership have been studied extensively and the cumulative findings suggest that [they] are positively associated with important ethics-related outcomes such as follow erÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions of trust in fairness of their leader and organizational citizenship behaviorsÃ¢â¬ (p. 586). This therefore implies that these leadership approaches projects similar elements with servant, spiritual and authentic leadership in terms of followersÃ¢â¬â¢ trust and organizational citizenship behaviors. Internalized self regulation and personal and social identification are focal components shared by authentic, spiritual, transformational, and charismatic leadership approaches, but are largely absent in servant leadership (Avolio Gardner, 2005). Conclusion This analysis contributes to our understanding of ethical leadership and its different variations, namely servant, spiritual and authentic leadership. The careful comparisons between these leadership theories and other conventional leadership models such as transformational and charismatic leadership give credence to the fact that leader emphasis on ethical dimensions of leadership generates beneficial pers onal and organizational outcomes. It has also been demonstrated that value-based leadership projected in servant, spiritual and authentic leadership is predicated on shared, robustly internalized values that are promoted and acted upon by the leader, but which goes a long way to ensure leadership effectiveness, positive organizational outcomes in terms of competencies development and productivity, and follower development (Fry, 2003). The task, therefore, is for the management of contemporary organizations to select a leadership approach that will articulate a better vision of a better future. Reference List Avolio, B.J., Gardner, W.L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(1), 315-338. Blausten, P. (2009). Can authentic leadership survive the downturn? Business Strategy Review, 20(1), 84-87. Retrieved from Business Source Premier Database. Brown, M.E., Mitchell, M.S. (2010). Ethical and unethical leadership: Exploring new avenues for future research. Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(4), 585-616. Retrieved from Business Source Premier Database. Carter, J. (2009). Transformational leadership and pastoral leader effectiveness. Pastoral Psychology, 58(3), 261-271. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier Database. Ebener, D.R., OÃ¢â¬â¢Connell, D.J. (2010). How might servant leadership work? Nonprofit Management Leadership, 20(3), 315-335. Retrieved from Business Source Premier Database. Engelbresht, A.S., Van Aswegen, A.S., Theron, C.C. (2005). The effect of ethical values on transformational leadership and ethical climate in organizations. South African Journal of Business Management, 36(2), 19-26. Retrieved from Business Source Premier Database. Ferguson, J., Miliman, J. (2008). Creating effective core organizational values: A spiritual leadership approach. International Journal of Public Administration, 31(4), 439-459. Freeman, G.T. (2011). Spirituality and servant leadersh ip: A Conceptual model and research proposal. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 4(1), 120-140. Fry, L., Cohen, M. (2009). Spiritual leadership as a paradigm for organizational transformation and recovery from extended work hours cultures. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(2), 265-278. Fry, L.W., Matherly, L.L. (n.d.). Spiritual leadership and organizational performance: An exploratory study. Retrieved from https://www.tarleton.edu/home/. Irving, J.A. (2005). Servant leadership and the effectiveness of teams. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Regent University. Retrieved from http://people.bethel.edu/~irvjus/PDF/Irving,Justin-RegentUniversity_final.pdf. Karadog, E. (2009). Spiritual leadership and organizational culture: A study of structural equation modeling. Educational Sciences: Theory Practice, 9(3), 1391-1405. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier Database. Millar, C.J.M., Delves, R., Harris, P. (2010). Ethical and unethical leadership: Double vision? Journal of Public Affairs, 10(3), 109-120. Retrieved from Business Source Premier Database. Rowe, G., Guerrero, L. (2011). Cases in leadership. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Rubin, R.S., Diedorff, E.C., Brown, M.E. (2010). Do ethical leaders get ahead? Exploring ethical leadership and promotability. Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(2), 215-236. Retrieved from Business Source Premier Database. Sagnak, M. (2010). The relationship between transformational school leadership and ethical climate. Educational Sciences: Theory Practice, 10(2), 1135-1152. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier Database. Sendjaya, S., Sarros, J.C., Santora, J.C. (2008). Defining and measuring servant leadership behavior in organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 45(2), 402-424. Retrieved from Business Source Premier Database. Sparrowe, R.T. (2005). Authentic leadership and the narrative self. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(1), 419-439. Taylor, T., Martin, B.N., Hutchinson, S., Jinks, M. (2007). Examination of leadership practices of principles identified as servant leaders. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 10(4), 401-419. Retrieved from Business Source Premier Database. Walumbwa, F., Avolio, B., Gardner, W., Wernsing, T., Peterson, S. (2008). Authentic leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure. Journal of Management, 34(1), 89-126. Waterman, H. (2011). Principles of servant leadership and how they can enhance practice. Nursing Management, 17(9), 24-36. Retrieved from Business Source Premier Database. Whetstone, J.T. (2002). Personalism and moral leadership: The servant leader with a transforming vision. Business Ethics: A European Review, 11(4), 385-392. Retrieved from Business Source Premier Database. Xiaoyong, X., Fen, Y., Jiannong, S. (2011). Ethical leadership and leadersÃ¢â¬â¢ personalities. Social Behavior Personality: An International Journal, 39(3), 361-268. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier Database. Yukl, G.A. (2009). Leaders hip in Organizations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Argumentative - Term Paper Example The contentious bill was signed into law by Arizona governor on March 30 2015. The Senate Bill 1318 states that Ã¢â¬Å"A woman who takes abortion pill has a right to know her action may be reversible. Give women all the facts. Respect women. Yes on 1318Ã¢â¬ . The law is a broad step to bar insurance policies given through the federal exchange from offering coverage for specific abortions. With exemption of pregnancies that are as a result from rape, incest or could endanger a mothers life. The bill offers the required explanation to the long standing law. Proponents of abortion rights are infuriated of some stipulation on the bill. Specifically the requirement that doctors carrying out abortion should inform the woman that the results of a drug induced abortion may be reversible. However the process itself is still on the trial stage and physicians and abortion advocates claim it is not accountable to offer women the alternative. The science behind the law is based widely on the research findings of Dr.Geroge Delgado. Dr. Delgado a strong opponent of abortion claims that he was capable of saving a number of women who had started using abortion pills. The women were unable to go through the two step procedure carried out during abortion. It is an over the counter administration of hormone progesterone which is largely used by reproductive health specialists. It is authorized to use endorsed medicine by the FDA in this context and medical experts frequently opt for this method with patient approval. This is done more so when the patients condition is at risk to wait for long process approvals. Very typical the debate on abortion, the argument on both sides is strong. A conservative Dr.Cathy Herrod notes that it is unfortunate when a woman decides to go through an abortion without being informed of all the facts. Dr.Cathy head of the Centre for Arizona Policy is a strong proponent of the law. Dr.Cathy further
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Real estate development - Coursework Example Pollutants are thus deposited on the land from the water course. Fly-tippers are also a chief cause of the current state of the land. Their illegal dumping activities have further worsened the state of the land. Dangerous materials are as a result strewn all over the land and would be one of the major obstacles in development of the land. An old windmill is also present in the middle of the site which would cause inconveniences during the construction. In addition buried power cables that are at unknown locations in the land are also a possible hazard for people wishing to undertake any activity in the land. The school is the major party involved with the development project and their main objective is the construction of a new sportsÃ¢â¬â¢ center. The local council which offered land to the school however has a condition that flats as well as commercial use (artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ studios) should be developed in the land. Due to these two projects, careful planning should be done before the project is started to prevent any complications of construction. The location of the site is the first major statutory issue that is facing the project. As described the land Ã¢â¬Å"is bordered on one side by the river Wandle, a small water course that has become silted up and pollutedÃ¢â¬ . This location is a very unsuitable area for human dwelling. Working in such an area therefore has a multitude of risks which include being in the wrong side of the law according to the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act (1974). The windmill in the middle of the site dates from the mid-19th century and its demolition would be illegal without consultation of the local planning authority according to the Town and Country Planning Act (1990). This is because it is described to appear in the local list as a building of historic interest. Fly-tipping is an illegal activity according to the Environmental Protection Act
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Primate Social Behavior Tell Us About Human Evolution - Essay Example As the groups grow and divide the relationship equation changes at various levels. The leaders need to prove themselves in their body strengths as well as should have the ability so that members of the group follow him. The relationship between people increased with their need to stay together for hunting. When primates started staying together various things got invented, as rightly quoted necessity is the mother of invention. The social structures, needs of leaders and followers, distribution of labor and responsibilities based on age, sex and bodily strengths, language and communication methods and many other things developed. Different cultures have different characteristics. The study of various cultures comes under ethnography. Culture can be defined as the social heritage of human society where social behavior is based on certain norms and rules. Each member of the society needs to abide by these norms and rules. These have an impact on individual and collective behaviors of people. Social behavior has become complex in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s complex social structure. Social behavior as indicates is the way people live together and communicate with each other. Various biologist and anthropologist have described and explained culture and society differently. Culture and society are different in the modern human society and historical primateÃ¢â¬â¢s society. This is the factor which distinguishes the human and nonhuman societies. E. B. Tylor defined human culture as "capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society".
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Philosophy of education Essay Philosophy is a set of beliefs or ideas one has towards their discipline or line of work. Don Kauchak and Paul Eggen, authors of the textbook Ã¢â¬Å"Introduction to Teaching: Becoming a Professional,Ã¢â¬ define philosophy as Ã¢â¬Å"The study of theories of knowledge, truth, existence, and moralityÃ¢â¬ [ (Kauchak Eggen, 2011) ]. The philosophy of education is a very important aspect of teaching. It is meant to guide teachers in the classroom and offer insight to the thinking of past experts [ (Kauchak Eggen, 2011) ]. It often will answer the main questions any new and even seasoned teachers have when preparing to teach in the classroom. There are various degrees of philosophy, for example; there is the philosophy of life, the philosophy of religion, and the philosophy of education. However, there are four philosophies of education they include: Perennialism, Essentialism, Progressivism, and Social Reconstructionism. After calculating my scores on the philosophical assessment in the Kauchak and Eggen textbook, I found that my personal philosophy of education is an equal combination of Perennialism and Social Reconstructionism. According to Kauchak and Eggen, Perennialism consists of the teaching of classic knowledge [ (Kauchak Eggen, 2011) ]. This includes literacy, mathematics, and science. Another way of looking at this is teaching studentÃ¢â¬â¢s subjects that they will use in the future, even if it does not seem relevant now. The definition of perennial is Ã¢â¬Å"long-termÃ¢â¬ and that is exactly how a teacher with a Perennialism philosophy teaches. Social Reconstructionism, according to Kauchak and Eggen is Ã¢â¬Å"An educational philosophy suggesting that schools, teachers, and students should lead in alleviating social inequities in our societyÃ¢â¬ [ (Kauchak Eggen, 2011) ]. In other words, a teacher with this philosophy teaches their students about social problems, improving society and teaching their students about personal responsibilities. Perennialism and Social Reconstructionism are each on opposite ends of the spectrum. Social Reconstructionism focuses more on the society in which the student lives, while Perennialism focuses more on the intellect of the student. Having these two as my personal philosophies is a bit difficult. While I do believe teaching tolerance and understanding is important, I also know that learning mathematics, science and literacy is equally important. After reading the scenario on page 219 of the Kauchak and Eggen textbook, I would respond to the students by first trying to motivate them. Offering incentives is a great way to get studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attention; they are more eager to pay attention if they are pursuing it to get something out of it. You can use anything as a motivator; my favorite was always free dessert at lunch! You can also give extra credit points on the next quiz or for younger students you could offer an incentive such as Ã¢â¬Å"line leaderÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"bathroom monitorÃ¢â¬ for the day. The younger students love when they think they are in charge of something, it can also help their self-esteem knowing they are doing something important. I do believe this is more of an example of Perennialism, however, depending on the specific motivator and the response it gets; it could be Social Reconstructionism as well. The second response I would try is starting a discussion. I would try getting the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attention by putting them in discussion groups or having a discussion as a whole class. This would definitely be an example of Social Reconstructionism. This encourages the students to work together and to come up with a solution together. It gives them a chance to ask each other questions before asking the teacher. It also compels them to stay focused on the topic and eliminates the Ã¢â¬Å"my hand wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t raisedÃ¢â¬ excuse. My third response, though I would make it my last resort, would be to write a summary on what was taught during the instruction. By doing this, it makes the students want and need to listen in order to do their assignment correctly. This also offers a chance to get some feedback from the teacher and allows you to reflect on what you learned and what you need to work on. This is an example of Perennialism, as it deals with the thought process and encouraging literacy. While Perennialism and Social Reconstructionism are complete opposites, they also share some characteristics, making it easier to teach using both philosophies. Many common knowledge subjects can be transitioned to include activities that work well to alleviate social problems. In math, you can have the students work in groups. This promotes team work and logic. In literacy, you may give reading assignments dealing with a specific problem in society (e. g. poverty, bullying, etc) and have the students write summaries on what they read. This can promote logical thinking as well as establishing knowledge of the society issue in the reading.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Strategies For The Tourism Industry Of Spain Tourism Essay Tourism is of strategic importance to country as an export commodity to generate foreign currency earnings and a potential generator of taxes for local authorities. Government investment and development of tourism infrastructure benefits all sectors of tourism industry, foreign and domestic tourists, as well as the local in habitants in a tourism destination area. (Jamal, T. and Robinson, M., 2009) Well conceived development of a critical mass of attractions by the combined efforts of private and public interest directly benefits to all the industry sectors involved in the tourism system, which improves the attractiveness and competitiveness of the destination. For a country to have a successful tourism it is highly essential to maintain the sustainability of its tourist destination. Tourist destination is a place that a traveller chooses to visit for a stay of at least a night in order to experience some feature or characteristic of a place perceived as a satisfying leisure time experience. (Jamal, T. and Robinson, M., 2009) Destinations are regarded as a popular aspect of tourism as they encourage visitors by delivering valuable experience through various locations, resources and service. On the contrary they even attract disasters caused by natural hazards or by human activities. Disaster is stated as a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. (Ritchie, Brent W., 2009) Natural disasters is the result of caprices of nature which includes earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, etc where as manmade disasters are a cause of terrorism, war or industrial action. After comparing these disasters it can observed that, both have immediate threat, danger and the potential for ongoing disruption but manmade disasters to some extent can be preventable and controllable. (McDonald, R., 2003) This paper will illustrate the effects of Man-made disasters resembling Terrorist attacks and Hotel collapse in Spain, including the marketing strategies that could be adopted to mitigate these disasters for retention of tourism in the destination (Word Count 2) Spain is the package holiday capital of Europe and second most popular tourist destination globally, for specialising and maintaining the countrys image of sun, sand and sangria. In terms of tourism Spain has gained marvellous victory being one of the worlds top five destinations which offers over a million bed spaces in serviced accommodation sector .As per latest research Spain is the second European country after France which holds a market share of 11.4% in terms of international arrivals (UNWTO, 2010). Being famous for its summer holidays, it attracts most of the tourists from countries such as United Kingdom, France, Germany and Scandinavia. (Spain Travel Guide, 2011) The Spanish economy has generated one and a half million jobs supported by tourism, contributing to one-third of the countrys export earnings and which accounts for 12 percent of GDP. However this achievement has been earned at the cost of society and the environment. The result of this has led to massive expansion through development of apartments and holiday villas as well hotels near the coastline. (Boniface Brian, G. and Cooper, C., 2005). Similarly by gaining popularity, the destination has created huge traffic jams and has the highest amount of cars as compared to Europe. (TV Choice, 2000) But the major disaster to be considered in Spain is of Majorca which faced Series of Bomb Explosion that occurred in 2009 by Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) terrorist organisation (BBC News,2009) and the hotel collapse in 2008(Expatica, 2008) which created severe havoc in the region by affecting the life of the tourists. The blast had affected the itinerary of thousands of visitors as most of the flights were either turned back or diverted for safety. The Spanish economy is highly reliable on tourist for its source of income and tourism trade; but this attack has frightened the localities and has challenge the travellers and tourists security beliefs, enabling them to give a second thought of whether to fly back to the destination. On the Contrary, the incident of hotel collapse which occurred due to negligence of the construction has taken lives of many construction workers. After all these disasters occurred the first priority of the Spanish government was to cut down further repetition of the crises for which the government had implemented certain Counter Terrorism Strategies. The government started providing appropriate training to local police and actors in the civil society for identifying signs of terrorism in the vicinity, by ensuring efficient collaboration between the relevant bodies and front line staff and developing regular contact with local communities. A software named as Check the Web (CTW) was introduced to monitor regular activities of the militant Islamic websites of Europe to avoid future threats. Various information systems such as Schengen Information System and the Visa Information Systems were developed for protection of citizens and infrastructure by ensuring an area of freedom, security and justice. The Spanish Presidency adopted an Action Plan to combat Cyber Crime foreseeing the short-, mid- and long-term threats on European network and information security. (Council Of The European Union, 2010) After the car bombings that occurred in 2009 in Majorca the government took additional securities in all the modes of transport including passenger and air cargo for prioritising the safety of the tourist. For reducing the terrorism threat it is very essential that public and private sector work hand in hand, for data exchange and information sharing relating to Passenger Name Records, processing and transfer of Financial Messaging Data and the information distributed within the local area. The concept Marketing Strategy refers to an organisational function and a set of process for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationship in ways that benefit the organisation and its stakeholders. (Ferrell, O.C. and Hartline Michael, D., 2008). The problems faced by Spain in terms of tourism requires a market led response for which certain marketing strategies if adopted by the Spanish government, can facilitate in times of considerable unease and market turbulence to maintain its tourism. Firstly the Spanish government has encouraged the Australian tourists visiting Madrid in 2011 for World Youth Day to register at their website, in order to take advantage of insurance facilities and accommodation benefits along with preventing cautions and monitor developments. (Smart Traveller, 2011) Being the initial country outside Italy to promote this event for the second time it can facilitate better promotions by offering discounts on attraction, restaurants and theatres. The event being conducted on a wider scale in the capital state, it essential that the government should form an alliance with the Airlines, hoteliers, wholesale tour operators and other sources for effective marketing management. (Beirman, D. 2003) This event will last for a week (Catholic Pilgrim Office, 2011) which if managed properly, can generate income for the country from sources such as additional usage of public transport in that period, expenditure by visitors in tourism and leisure area. Being an island in the Mediterranean it is essential that Spain develops new holiday styles to reduce seasonality, encourage higher spending visitors and to spread tourism more evenly throughout the country. Madrid being the political and financial capital of Spain serves as the principal transportation hub including centre of technological education, training and development and as a cultural and business centre. Additionally the city is renowned for conducting venues in recent years for international conferences and being the headquarters of World Tourism Organisation (WTO). (Perret, S. and Bijaoui, P., 2006) In order to promote the destination Spain and its most recognised football club Real Madrid have signed a pioneer agreement. This agreement will promote and enhance the tourism brands of the destination globally using its slogan Visit Spain, Visit Madrid. However the capital city has effectively developed its public- private collaboration through the citys marketing agency Promocion Madrid and has pioneered its network of strategic alliances with various tourist destinations, including New York, Sao Paulo, Buenos Aires, Mexico and Tokyo. (Andaluz, 2011) These international alliances will foster the culture and attractions of the destination to the rest of the world. Thus Sports Tourism signifies a great platform for the Region of Madrid to encourage international travellers. This strategy of intensive marketing will feature temporary discounts or incentives as tactics that can be applied to recover losses incurred by the destination due to disasters occurred earlier. Similarly establishment and maintenance of effective media coverage and public relations will play a major role in driving the tourist back to the destination. Furthermore, the Madrid region is given the opportunity to host the 2018 Ryder Cup. This will create an excellent platform for encouraging Golf tourism at a global level which in return will generate a high business volume for the region due to vast arrival of spectators. In order to maintain sustainability in the Sports Tourism the Government of Spain has signed a Treaty with sports bodies such as Spanish Royal Football Federation and Real Madrid in order to boost the brand image of the destination in international countries. (The Guardian, 2010). Secondly, Spanish National Tourist Organisations (NTO) has started various promotional campaigns such as Passion for Life and Spain Marks, for promoting the brand image of Spain. The campaign highlights the appeal of the Spanish Lifestyles and the cultural heritage, emphasising on the different regions. (Boniface Brian, G. and Cooper, C., 2005) Spain Marks describes the various attractions and activities available to tourists in different parts of the country, additionally positioning the destination in terms of lifestyles and attractions. TurespaÃ ±a, the Spanish National Tourism Authority reveals that buying patterns in major markets are changing and leisure visitors are becoming more independent, preferring self tailored holidays to packaged tours. The changes are fuelled by low cost and changing preferences of activities. Today the Spanish major islands provide low fare services and independent beaches/islands are growing. Spain Marks is intended to show the countrys flexibility to adapt to this changing market. Hence both its branding and marketing strategy are intended to respond to these trends. (Lennon John, J.et al, 2006) Such promotional campaign will reduce the barrier of threat created by terrorism in the minds of tourists visiting Spain due to the following criteria. It will help to maintain its reputation of the topmost tourist destination within the target markets. Generate more revenue to the countrys tourism business as a direct result of the campaign activity by retaining and increasing the number of domestic and international tourists visiting the destination. Similarly the campaign will assist in identifying the key consumer insights for domestic and major European markets. Finally it will even improve the relationships with non tourists sectors. All the above criteria state that the capital is open for business through assortment of events to provide the countrys tastes and fashions. (Ladkin, A. et al., 2007) However Spain can even encourage the third age tourism where Spanish senior citizens can reside in resort hotels at reduced rates outside the peak season (Boniface Brian, G. and Cooper, C., 2005) Lastly for designing the hotels, the Spanish government can adopt a value chain strategy from coordinating and programming of architecture, towards site security design and risk assessment by maintaining a sustainable collaboration between public and private sector in order to increase local contribution. (Luman Ronald, J., 2011) The Spanish hotel market can promote itself by being more focus towards leisure oriented than commercially oriented. This can be possible by encouraging the local commercial market and increasing the number of high spending European weekend break visitors. In order to make this strategy successful the local government will have to incur high spending on its infrastructure investments and beaches. As the hotel sector becomes more internationally reputed it will be an attractive target for international investors, developers, banks and operators to expand their representation in the destination. Additionally, development of boutique hotels and extended stay products will generate revenue for the economy. (Perret, S. and Bijaoui, P., 2006) Eventually more approaches towards conferences, golf tourism, winter sports facility and activity holidays will increase the brand value of the destination. After analysing and implementing the concerned marketing strategies, we will now glance at the pros and cons of these strategies. Firstly, Madrid being the capital has become the major hub of various events and thus acts as a brand ambassador for the destination. Various short, mid and long term marketing strategies for promoting tourism, has been implemented in the respect to Sports, conferences, public welfares and attractions. This generates a huge income for the economy and promotes the brand image of the country. But after applying such strategy, the threat it will attract is the unpredictable terrorist attacks which create a sense of fear in the environment and in the mind of tourists. Similarly there are chances that huge involvement of media in such events might work in favour or against the situation in case of sudden calamity. As Spain is highly bound to face terrorist attacks in future, it needs to take precautions over expansion of its promotional campaigns which unite all the international tourists together at a specific location. The fear of such disaster reduces the profit margin of the economy finally leading to a decline in the expected annual budget. Secondly, the next strategy of promoting various campaigns such as Spain Marks have been quite effective in promoting the countrys brand image as similar strategies have been proved effective in promoting London where Total London Month (TLM) and Total London Tour (TLT) was structured in encouraging the Londoners for using tourism facilities by offering discounts on attraction, restaurant and theatres.( Ladkin, A. et al., 2007)The only side effect of this is that where on one side it generates more revenue for the country on the side it increases traffic jams and pollutes the environment due to increasing arrivals of tourists. Finally the rapid development of hotels on the island attracts the involvement of international companies to invest in the destination which imports more international currency and builds a strong economy. However this will affect the environment as it reduces the land for plantation, affecting the ozone layer. After analysing the above strategies, the best approaches that will work in favour of Spain is of the high interest shown in the field of sports, conferences, public welfares, unexplored attractions along with promotion of various campaigns. This is essential as the current trend demands experiences, fulfilment and rejuvenation rather than promotion of destinations and commodities.If these targets are implemented successfully then Spain stands an excellent chance of being the top most tourist destination in future. To make a final conclusion for this paper it is recommended that the various stakeholders engaged in the tourism sector, need to maintain effective collaboration between public and private organisation as tourism being their basic economic activity and consider additional prevention measures against the problems created from the external environment. Similarly there is a need to reinvent various strategies for attracting tourist due to the changing revolution. Hence there is a need to practice and remember the saying Prevention is better than cure.