Saturday, August 31, 2019
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to implement an advocacy campaign that will assist adults with disabilities with the necessary resources that will assist them in becoming productive citizens in the community. As children with disabilities, community- based support services are not available after he or she becomes an adult, consequently, there is no information provided to aid them with basic needs such as social empowerment, financial assistance, provision maintenance, and other agencies that will assist them and their families if needed. This paper will also discuss the goals, barriers, and support factors that will assist in this advocacy campaign, as well as the activities that will be implemented along with the necessary resources that are available for adults with disabilities. Introduction, Needs, and Goals A young child who is diagnosed with a disability, alter their familys lives forever. Dealing with the challenges from the disability, families had to rely upon strengths withi n themselves that they did not know existed. Community-based services for children with disabilities are available until the child reaches adulthood. After the child becomes an adult and wants to pursue a career, they have to pay for it themselves through financial aid or school loans that have to be repaid back once graduation is completed. Some people with a disability cannot drive therefore, it is difficult for them to get out and socialize so they remain confined to their homes without a support system. Advocating for people with disabilities will help them receive community resources as needed that will assist them with their advocacy needs. Disabled people face many challenges in society. There is a great need for advocacy when it comes to assisting these individuals with crises that affects their daily living. The purpose of this advocacy campaign is to educate disabled people and their families about the resources that are available to assist them with their basic advocacy needs. Knight and Oliver (2007) stressed that there is a demand for advocacy for children and young people with disabilities that have difficulty with m aking important decisions that will affect their lives. The basic needs that hinders individuals with disabilities live aÃ productive life in the community are (1) social empowerment (2) financial assistance for education, (3) provision maintenance, and (4) support systems. Empowerment is described as a person who cannot completely accomplish their goal and become a part of society and, if they are not able to have a say, and take control over their situations regarding their life (Miller, Hinterlong, Greene, 2010). People cannot completely accomplish their goal to be a part of society if they are not able to have a say and take control over their situations regarding their life. Houten and Jacobs (2005) stressed that empowerment cannot take place unless there is active participation in their community and society. However, active involvement of disabled people has not been clear in reality, it is difficult if we take a quick look at the living circumstances and the capability of disabled people. According to Voorhis and Hostetter (2006), social empowerment among social service professionals placed attention on the perception of empowerment among social service professionals, and their responsibility for client empowerment through advocacy. Financial as sistance for education to assist people with disabilities will help them further their education after undergraduate because financial aid is no longer available. Boone and King-Berry (2009) asserts that people with disabilities and their relatives have a serious need for information related in particular to their disability status. For example, they also mentioned that a financial incentive program that offer cash or other benefits should be created to increase more income, additional services, and or else an economic opportunity for individuals with disabilities. Providing financial assistance through community support will decrease the anxiety of them not being able to complete educational goals because lack of funds, and also stop them from applying for student loans that is repayable once they receive their degree. Provision maintenance is an ongoing service for individual with disabilities to help aid in housekeeping, laundry, and meal preparation on a regular basis when needed, not just when their impairment will not allow them to perform these daily functions, so they can continue to live independently. Provision maintenance will benef it them by providing them with a service that will complete those chores on the days they are not mobile because of pain. According to Moone and Lightfoot (2009), people with disabilities desire to live independently in the community and a need forÃ suitable services is needed that will support them with daily living. Support systems are essential to everyone, not just those with disabilities. However, individuals with disabilities depend on the aid of family, friends, and services within the community to assist them until they are totally dependent upon themselves. Support services for people with disabilities are vital to the achievement of students with disabilities (Tagayuna, Stodden, Chang, Zeleznik, Whelley, 2005). Professionals must also accept that they have a responsibility to work with and support the disabled persons family, because a person who places the family in danger, also places professionals in danger as well. Therefore, professionals must build relationships with families for personal growth and development by supporting people with disabilities. Van Haren and Fiedler (2008) convey that professionals must positive to make families not so dependent on their advice and services through a family empowerment plan. The goal of this advocacy campaign is to support individuals with disabilities by connecting them to community based services that will aid them in their pursuit to become a well-rounded individual, to collaborate with United Cerebral Palsy in assisting with this campaign for resources for people with disabilities. As Luecking and Wittenburg (2009) reveals, a system linkage is needed to provide services for people with disabilities whose service needs, and lack of contact to supports systems can cause difficulties in preparing for schooling, work, and independent living for people with disabilities. Barriers and Supports There are several potential barriers that may hinder this campaign applying resources to people with disabilities. They are (1) a need of financial assistance if people with disabilities want to pursue a career beyond undergraduate to relieve stress of not having enough funds to continue their education because the only funding that is available is student loans, whi ch will place this population in debt. Regardless of how much students and parents spend in the United States, such as credit cards, which shows lack of financing, over fifty percent of college students have accumulated over five thousand dollars in debt from a loan company like Sally Mae (Boone, King-Berry (2009). It is important to help these people with educational funding from community resource that will help them financially while continuing their education. Another potential barrier that may hinder this campaign of applying resources for disabled people is needsÃ for disable people to socialize within the community regardless of their handicap. It is difficult to socialize when a person is confined at home because of a disability. There should be a resource that provides people with disabilities to go and socialize with other people beside them that have a disability. According to Taub, McLorg and Bartnick (2009), there is a barrier called environmental, which get in the way of disabled women participating in soc ial activities because of the location of the activity. For example, a person in a wheelchair, there may not be enough space for it. The last potential barrier that may hinder this campaign of applying resources to disabled people is a need for the already existing community based services to work together and provide these clients with the necessary resources if needed. A person may believe that it would be simple for community-based services to work with a counselor to provide home health care for their disabled client on an ongoing temporary basis to assist him or her with personal and home care needs per their request. On the other hand, some community base services do not provide that type of home health care. Singer, Biegel, and Ethridge (2009) support this barrier by asserting that care giving is not needed for a few weeks or months during a loved ones acute illness, instead the need for assistance with daily living commonly last for years (p. 101). Even though there are several barriers that may hinder the advocacy campaign for helping disabled people, but there are various support factors that will assist with the efforts of this campaign such as non-profit organizations, home health care, state legislatures and elected representatives. Non-profit organizations. Home health care is needed for people with disabilities to assist them with pers onal care and household chores when their mobility has decreased due to the pain from the condition when it occurs, not always because they may not be in pain on a daily basis. Therefore, there should be organizations and federal and legislatures that work together to assist these people with their personal care needs like maxim health care (www.maximhealthcare.com), which is a non-profit organization that will collaborate with other organizations and federal, state, and local policies that will help aid in the advocacy effort for these people (Wehrwein, Pollack, 2005). Activities Problem Definition Since the problem definition has been described that will advocate change a proposed campaign will be developed (Rothstein, 2008). After that,Ã it is necessary to research of the resources for advocating for disabled people that have access to that will help in their campaign. A resource will include centers for people with disability and the people who need information on the necessary resources these advocacy needs. Next, developing the advocacy campaign for disabled people will include finding volunteers, creating the vision and mission statement, leadershi p team, fundraisers or sponsors that will provide monetary resources, and the results of the campaign. The volunteers will consist of skillful advocates who have years of experience that is elected and appointed leaders that will work for the cause of this campaign (Donaldson, 2008). For example, the president, the vice president, secretary, treasurer, and the Chaplin. The vision and mission statement will be created from the consumer education from the issues researched for this campaign for people with disabilities. The leadership team will consist community leaders that are strong, effective, and organizers (Keys, Factors, 2001). The leadership team will be committed and knowledgeable in the issues that people with disabilities encounter. The committee will also consist people who will locate sponsors or create fundraisers to provide funds for this campaign. The results of the campaign will be the resources that will enable people with disabilities to receive services to assist them with becoming active citizens within the community, finances for school, home health care that will assist them with personal care and household chores when need, and support system that will help them and their families become independent on making their own decisions. Strategic P lanning This process will be developed from social marketing strategies for reaching people with disabilities. Social marketing is characterized as marketing techniques that will be used to gear skillful people in the area of disabilities to promote change for action (Moone, Lightfoot, 2009). For example, the planning will be created through social marketing strategies to support individuals with disabilities by connecting them to the community- based services that will aid them in their pursuit to become active citizens in the community. When advocating for people with disabilities, this type of strategy will benefit because it will focus on what the disable person need, such as social empowerment and finances to further education rather than focusing on the disability (Moone, Lightfoot, 2009). The six marketing are (1) participants, which is the people that willÃ focus on the needs of the disabled people (2) partnering with other agencies that will work with disabled people, this technique is essential to the campaign (3) price, getting the federal, state, and legislators to act on behalf of the disabled people (4) promotion, is the materials that will be used to get the information in the community (5) product, advocating for people with disabilities to receive the n ecessary resources for their basic needs and (6) place, is where the campaign advocates will meet within the community to provide services (Moone, Lightfoot, 2009). Actions This stage of the advocacy campaign for people with disabilities who will make contact with the people that are in the public eye such as the city officials to support the advocacy efforts on behalf of disabled people, which Eriksen (1997) characterize as lobbying. Then that person or organization must review the information from research to decide whether lobbying will be suitable advocate that will take action through communicating the organizations needs to such as agencies that provide financial assistance, home health care providers, and support systems such as United Cerebral Palsy through letters, flyers, phone calls to officials to support laws on research for resources in aiding disabled people, support groups for disabled people, and networking are beneficial to advocating for people with disabilities. This process will provide positive point of views on advocacy and support advocates that will act on behalf of disabled people (Toporek, Lewis, Crethar, 2009). Evaluations Evaluation of the advocacy campaign is vital in any organization to ensure that there are no problems that are not identified such as environmental problems, financial problems, attitudinal problems, and problems with the group that might affect the completion of the advocacy campaign (Torres, Preskill, 2001). To ensure that the evaluation of the advocacy campaign is successful in advocating on behalf of the client, the advocate leader will utilize SPIES, which is categorized as strategic planning, implementation, evaluating, and streamlining (www.courseroom2.capella.edu). Once the mission and the rationale has been established, the advocacy committee must strategize a plan along with the disabled clients to implement the goals that is aim to aid people with disabilities connect to community resources to assist in their advocacy efforts. The disabled person will have to make a decision to become a self-advocate to assist the counselor in fighting for resources to aid themÃ with funds for education, home health aide, and a support system that will help him or her become active people in the community. After the plan have been developed, then the implementation of the activity can be set up by allowing the client to speak at a workshop on his or her behalf about funding for education, and then evaluate by doing follow-up on him or her to see if the plan is being completed. Finally, the counselor would streamline by providing disabled people with support groups for disabled people who are having a difficult time receiving resources that will help them w ith their advocacy efforts to observe other in similar situations and help them make a decision to continue to plead for their own cause. The advocacy meetings will take place in the local library on every Wednesday of the month. There will be approximately three new volunteer members will be assigned per month as needed for campaign. Each member will be assigned four disabled clients and their family members and provide information as to whether they already receive community-based services. Counselor Roles in the Advocacy Campaign The counselor that will be advocating in the campaign for disabled people is trained in professional counseling so he or she can intervene with these clients individually or in a group in order to understand the clients disability as well as the advocacy efforts (Kiselica , Robinson, 2001). He or she will beware of their own values, skills, and personalities that are vital to advocacy, which will consist of relationship building and communications skills to effective plead the advocacy efforts to the community clearly so he or she can be heard. He or she is a good listener, seek questions to understand the needs of the client, they will portray good character and integrity that is trustworthy as well as have the ability to think normally so they can plan the best strategy for this disabled people (Eriksen, 1997). He or she will show commitment and appreciation for their clients (Kiselica, Robinson, 2001). For example, the advocate counselor wi ll ensure that the disabled client know that they understand and feel what they are experiencing and will do everything to assist them in receiving the necessary resources that will enable them to become sociable in the community, funds to continue their education, aid with household chores, and support systems that will support their needs. The advocate must be knowledgeable in communications skills such as verbal and nonverbal and realize what the client is saying and not saying. He or she should also beÃ able to speak with any organization that will aid in helping the disabled clients live productively by utilizing their skills in the areas of being able to discuss complicated problems with the clients such as not being able to provide home health care because of the severity of the condition, using the computer to obtain research on disability as it relates to the advocacy campaign, must be able to communicate the advocacy efforts through television or radio (Kiselica and Robinson (2001). These skills are necessary for advocacy work. The counselor has developed many relationships throughout his or her field of counseling. He or she is involved in professional organizations, assisted other organizations that are already involved in activities that already in existence in the community, and no doubt has been involved in legislation in some way. In other words, the counselor is the best advocate for advocating for this disabled people because he or she already possesses the skills that will make this grass root campaign into a reality. However, with any advocacy campaign there are ethical issues that may arise while planning a strategy. In planning for this campaign, the counselor did not consider that there may be some barriers that may hinder the personal growth and development of the disabled client while working on this campaign (Greenleaf, Williams 2009). The ethical dilemmas that may arise in advocating for disabled people to receive community resources such as being mindful of the power relationship between the counselor and the client, by not letting the client gain control over the interview by speaking on behalf of himself or herself (Knight, Oliver, 2007). For example, not gaining information about the clients disability before the interview, learn their behaviors because there may be some type of concern that they may not be able to complete the interview and counselor-client relationship by overstepping his or her by getting overly involved with the clients problems. Kiselica and Robinson (2001) assert that professionals must describe the boundaries of their relationships with clients even if they take on a more involved role than they are responsible for. For example, a counselor that is disabled may become to involved with the clients situation and make all the decisions the planning stage because they have experienced similar advocacy efforts of the client regardless of what cultural background the disabled client are from, the counselor must let the disabled client become a productive citizens by letting him or herÃ make their own decision for improving change through community based services. Resources There will be a list of local and systematic resources that will be used in collaboration with the advocacy campaign for disabled people to provide community based services that will assist them in locating social activities within the community to become active, funding for college to continue their education, agencies to assist them with provision maintenance, and support system that will help them and their family to become independent and work on their own behalf. (See Appendix). Recommendations There are several ideas to bear in mind prior to engaging in advocacy that involves learning definitions to the problem that has not been defined, examine the source power, observe and locate the federal and state officials that will make the decision concerning the laws on issues associated with the disability, and understand the completion and expansion of the actions concerning disabled people (Tappe, Galer, Radius, 2009). The advocate counselor must choose a strategic plan that will r e-evaluate the actions communicating the organizations needs and sporadically see if more funding is needed by researching more literature and seeking consultation from other agencies who have successfully advocated for disabled people. When engaging in grass root campaigns, there are many issues to consider such as problems that may arise both inside and outside of the organization, how the definition of the problem is going to become a sticky factor with the public, such as the media and radio, home health agencies, such as Maxim, and community based agencies, such as United Cerebral Palsy, and financial institutions, as well as the counselors profession (Gladwell, 2002). Another issue to consider is a possible setback to utilizing the social marketing strategies, such as flyers and letters, for reaching an organization and agency desired spokesperson in that it may be more successful, and might reach more disabled people than it is capable of serving (Moone, Lightfoot, 2009). Conclusion People with disabilities cause families lives to be changed dramatically because of the obstacles that are challenged on behalf of the disability where families had to depend upon their self-determination that they did not believe they had. Community based services have been available for children for a long time, but adults have no community based services that will assist them and their families if needed. An advocacy campaign for people with disabilities will enable themÃ to receive community resources as needed to help them with their basic needs. There is a demand for advocacy for assisting people with situations that affects their daily routine (Knight, Oliver, 2007). The rationale for this advocacy campaign is to educate disabled people and their families about the resources that are available to assist them with their advocacy needs such as social empowerment, financial empowerment, provision maintenance, and a support system.
Friday, August 30, 2019
I peered down at the lush shrubbery surrounding the hotel and the bright blue pool. The look of pleasure plastered over people's faces was a joy to see, the tall elegant building towered over meÃ¢â¬ ¦ Then I lowered the brochure. I had been promised one of the top notch hotels in the whole of Benidorm yet here I was, greeted by a musky smell. It made the air misty and filled my nostrils with I smell that I can only describe as making me want to retch. A dingy looking council flat towered over me, literally. It seemed as though it was swaying to one side and about to fall flat on my face. So much for Ã¢â¬ËThe perfect place to stay'. My eyes stung and my gaze swayed down towards my feet as I tried to heal my eyes of pain. I was welcomed by the smell again when I realised it was appearing from the floor. Black liquid oozed from under the sole of my sandals. After dumping my luggage in a tacky room just containing a bed, a bedside cabinet and a bathroom; don't get me wrong this is all I asked for but it could at least be clean, I made my way out towards the town to check out the locals and see where the main attractions were. No-one was in sight. Where was everyone? I paced down through a cut in the trees and followed a greyish looking cat; they were all over the place. I found everyone. There was a market on today. I strolled down the first aisle and took in my surroundings; it smelt of dusty rugs and plastic. I looked on the hand made walls and saw copy's of all the latest fashion labels; they looked very fake but I couldn't go away from Benidorm without something like that. I chuckled to myself. I was being shouted at by a local, Ã¢â¬Å"Please Miss, come buy Ã¢â¬â amazing bag Ã¢â¬â very cheapÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I waved my arm and dismissed the idea. Was it really that obvious that I was British? I scrunched my eyes tight and fought against the sun, squinting at the brightness of it; I made out the outline my hotel. I had walked around in a colossal circle. I came here for one main reason, the sun. I could mainly get that at the beach. Off I wandered. I arrived at my destination. I walked along the paved edge of the sand. Taking in the smell of the salty water being rose by the hot sun. I looked around and people on scooters were appearing to have a death wish as they swerved in and out of the busy traffic taking silly little risks to get only about two cars in front. I looked back down towards the beach, here it was winter yet it was still warm, local people were walking alongside me tutting at the thought of the British being in their swimwear at such a Ã¢â¬Ëcold' time of year. As I got nearer reaching the edge of the beach I was gazing upon a huge crowd gathered around a certain part of the sand. I edged closer and saw umbrellas towering over me; I squeezed through the mass of people to be taken away by the art in front of my eyes. A sculpture, made of only sand, of two mermaids sitting on stones was draped across the Spanish beach. The man who had obviously made the amazing model was standing proudly next to it with a proud smile on his face. I made eye contact with him. He looked as though he was about to have a heart attack. Ã¢â¬Å"Please Miss,Ã¢â¬ He looked desperate, Ã¢â¬Å"I have no money, please,Ã¢â¬ He pointed to the mounds of buckets piled in front of the sculpture with a look on his face that only the most devilish of people would resist. I looked at the measly amount of coins in the buckets and pulled out my purse. I was shocked at the decent looking people who all instantly sat on the ground beneath them and turned into beggars. I was gob smacked. I turned and ran I was followed by some but then they gave up. I ran and ran. I headed for the hotel. It was dingy and council-flat looking but I didn't care. It would keep me safeÃ¢â¬ ¦ from thisÃ¢â¬ ¦ thisÃ¢â¬ ¦ mayhem. I got to my room and locked the door behind me, leaning on it for support. I panted and grew very hot with all the running in the hot climate. I shrunk to the floor and sat for a few minutes getting my breathing back to normal. I ran the shower hot and jumped in it. It was nice and refreshing on my skin after the day's events. I laughed at the thought of the people all sinking to the floor and instantly becoming beggars as they saw a British Traveller with money. I settled to bed looking forward to a peaceful sleep. I was just drifting off went there was an almighty crash and bang on the door to my room. I could here mumbled voices and saw a yellowy liquid with bits in it oozing through the crack between the bottom of the door and the floor. I tiptoed backwards and opened the door at arms length. There was something heavy against it. I dared open it more. A man who looked like he had passed out was laying half in my room and half out. Was he from this hotel? I called the office downstairs and someone said they would be up as soon as possible. The man started to move. I asked him his name and age. He was only 18 and called Pete on a lad's holiday and got lost. I was on the 4th floor; how did he get here? A man shouting in Spanish ran up towards me and took the man away. The cleaner cleaned what turned out to be vomit from under the door. I lay back down on the bed and looked at the ceiling. Another 9 days of this? I cried myself to sleep that night.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Besides past resistance, Darwin still faced obstacles in his hypotheses due to the lack of fossils. These fossils are believed to be the compass between an excessively commonplace of animal types. Although the reason behind the conviction and mistrust in DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s speculations are unknown, he amazed the logical world as well as general society and had the capacity to persuade numerous people in the misinformed past conviction. This alone makes Darwin one of the most exceptional individuals in science history.Ã Ã Ã The hypothesis of development, proposed by Darwin, has been progressively discredited because of its dependence on a doubtful case of unconstrained era, gaps in the fossil record for which advancement needs clarifications, and negating investigative disclosures that upset ideas whereupon evolutionists depended. The truth of the matter is that the fossil record is a quiet affirmation against Darwin 's mistaken hypotheses of the fossil record reporting his concept of ma... ... middle of paper ... ...et worms was known for over a century in both the living fauna and the fossil record. Another key move in creature advancement was the presence of the vertebrates. For over a century, confirmation has been accumulating from anatomy and embryology that the Chordata phylum advanced from the echinoderms. A variety of fossils and living creatures to recount the tale of the move. An illustration of this transitional succession is seen in a gathering of dark spineless creatures called the lancelets. With a notochord, solid tail, gill openings, a digestive tract along the stomach and numerous other chordata highlights, lancelets are the most fish-like spineless creatures known. Set in succession, the acorn worms, tunicates, lancelets and delicate bodied jawless fish demonstrate the complete arrangement of steps expected to develop a vertebrate from an invertebrate ancestor.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Using Qualitative Technique To Investigate A Problem At Work - Assignment Example The technique was chosen because it is significant in dealing with practical situations that require a proper understanding of behavior. Consequently, observation is influential in determining the meaning as well as the context over which an issue occurs. Misunderstanding about the responsibilities is a behavioral issue that can only be understood by analyzing the behavior of other people. Another rationale for choosing the technique is that I wish to determine the reasons why other employees cannot fulfill their duties as stipulated by the firm. Sometimes I find myself performing most of the tasks because the other employees consciously or unconsciously fail to undertake their duties. Essentially, the objective is to analyze and evaluate the situation through observations before employing other measures that can aid in solving the impasse. Observation avoids direct contact with the target group yet retrieves vital information.The issue under investigation is a misunderstanding about the responsibilities. Each of the members of the department will be observed against the duties they perform. After the responsibilities are assigned to the group, I will observe what each person does and the amount of time taken to complete a particular task. Consequently, documenting the people who have done their work will provide a perspective on the genesis of the problem. The observation will also focus on those directly involved and the ones who are dormant or focusing on other functions different from the duties assigned to them.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Politics of the Contemporary Middle East Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words
Politics of the Contemporary Middle East - Essay Example According to the research findings it can therefore be said that amongst the most important elements relative to international relations in the Middle East region following the Gulf War of 1991 was the peace process between the Arabs and Israel that was sponsored by America. The two main parties in the Arab Israeli conflict were Israel and Palestine. The main developments of the peace process were the Oslo Peace Accord, its implementation, the summit at Camp David and the re-escalation of violence. It is evident that the Oslo Peace Process was slated to fail from the beginning because under LikudÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership, Israel went back on its words relative to implementing its own obligations emanating from the deal. Upon reading the details of the accord it becomes clear that the Oslo Declarations of Principles never represented a strong foundation for peace between Israel and the PLO. It is widely believed that this happened because preferential treatment was given to Israel in the t reaty. The US is said to have avoided playing an effective and impartial role in brokering the peace agreements. The Soviet Union was an ally of the Palestinians but it was a declining power during the period. The enormous support provided to Israel by the US makes it clearly evident that there was an imbalance of power that served as an obstacle in making the treaty and agreements successful. The paper also presents the main theoretical assumptions of neorealism.... optimize security by maximizing their own military, diplomatic and economic capabilities Peace and order is achieved after states are able to achieve balance of power by effecting deterrence and stable alliances The presence of a dominating state can lead to stability if that state is hegemonic in terms of identifying its self interests with the interests of the larger region or global system The modernization theory originated through the concept of functionalist sociology. It holds that all societies developed from traditional to modern conditions, in terms of transforming from simplistic, narrow and theocratic circumstances to complicated, public and secular forms of organization. It is known that societies undergo different stages of socio economic transformation whereby some manage to modernize faster in view of their interactions and association with modern societies of the west. The theory is applicable to the Middle East region in the context of some states being in a transit ional stage towards modernism. The Postcolonial criticism approach is recent in having its origin in cultural studies. In fact it grew from analysis of the Middle East region as carried out by Edward Said (1978) through his influential work Orientalism, which related to the ways in which a distorted image was created about the Arabs by Europeans in justifying their colonial occupation in the region. This theory holds that politics in the Middle East Region was first characterized by struggle for power control by colonists, then by the super powers during the Cold War and subsequent to 1989, by the US alone. The arguments are based on the belief that nations in the Middle East are dependent or client states that act as agents of Western hegemony or national liberation groups striving to
Monday, August 26, 2019
Early-Age Marriage in Ethiopia - Essay Example In this particular research, I want to look into the cultural differences that spell the differences on how different societies view, and react to, early-age marriages or unions. In the Americas, I have come to believe that early-age unions, if ever they occur, are generally viewed, or judged, as a result of lack of parental guidance. Ironically, according to research, in Ethiopia, early-age marriages are planned by parents for many different reasons, but mostly to have a little Ã¢â¬Å"reliefÃ¢â¬ from continuous poverty. My aim in this research is to try to look at the different reasons and effects of early-age marriages to present them to readers in order to not only learn on the Ethiopian culture, but also to gain an insight into how important this aspect is in a person's life. Should people see how the freedom that young people have in a nation whose civil rights movement is at its highest is sometimes taken for granted because they are not placed in an opposite position, they might place more importance on matters that other people of their age would give everything to have. Background Should people, especially in underdeveloped communities where access to health care is inadequate, delay the age of marriage, problems on the physical, emotional, and mental well-being of these young girls will be lessened. Early-age marriage is a common occurrence in developing countries. One example of this is Ethiopia, where Ã¢â¬Å"62% of Ethiopian women aged 20-49 get married before the age of 18,Ã¢â¬ (Alemu 4) and most, if not all, of these are arranged by the parents of the couple. Furthermore, Ethiopia is ranked as having 12th largest occurrences of early marriages according to the International Center for Research on Women. In such marriages, these young girls are usually just forced to give in to their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ wishes for marriage. Permission of the bride is usually not sought, and even prior knowledge or consultation is usually not given. Because of thi s, the child-bride's physical, emotional, and mental well-being are placed under risk of damage that could sometimes be irreparable. Physical problems such as domestic violence, spousal rape, or complications during child-bearing and giving birth can cause severe damage to the child-bride (Gossaye et al. 2). Additionally, emotional issues such as depression, trauma, and even mental distress are evident in a big percentage of these marriages (Gossaye et al. 2). Furthermore, mental problems can also be observed in such marriages. For one, these child-brides are rarely able to go back to school after marriage. This deprives them of self-development and chances for growth. Self-fulfillment becomes rare for these females. Physical Problems in Early-Age Marriages I have not really immersed in a community where early-age marriages abound. However, there are certain multi-cultural communities in rural settings where these types of marriages or unions can be seen. I have observed that while domestic issues are present in every marriage, such issues are more emphasized if one of the spouses is very young. For one, I have always been against domestic violence. There is a general consensus that aside from the children, women are almost always the victims in domestic violence. If adult woman has problems in preventing it from happening to her, how much more can a child-bride prevent it from happening
Module 5 TD-MGT 411 Managing Workplace Safety - Essay Example The management should also write a policy which emphasizes on workplace health and safety. Secondly, the management of Chesapeake Chicken plant should involve their employees and give them a stake in the health and safety program to ensure success of the same. This is because health and safety is everybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility. This can be achieved by establishing a vigorous workplace health and safety committee. The third check should involve identification and controlling of hazards. This can be done by recording injuries, accidents, close calls and illnesses as they occur. Chesapeake should also review Occupational Safety and Health administration (OSHA) logs, workersÃ¢â¬â¢ compensation complaints, reports as well as close calls. The fourth check and balance should be complying with various regulations. Chesapeake Chicken plant ought to identify OSHA regulations that are applicable in their workplaces as well as complying with them. The fifth check involves training of employees about the potential hazards that they may possibly be exposed to while working as well as available means of protecting themselves. Thus all personnel ought to be retrained as required by set standards together with specific training on hazards in regard to their jobs. Finally, Chesapeake Chicken plant must repeatedly review their programÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknesses and strengths and how accurately it reflects on their desire to manage health and safety as well as maintain a culture of safety whereby employees hold safety as one of the values of the company and should actively mind their own welfare as well as that of others by establishing 2 way communication and responding to concerns and needs of fellow workers (Hopwood & Thompson,
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Critical challenges faced by automobile industry - Essay Example Alternative fuels will also play a big part in increasing the market share in the near future. The present low cost of oil will not be permanent and the public is poised to demand more environmentally friendly automobiles. Electric cars and lithium ion batteries will be a major contributor to this demand. This will create a new market as people are given an incentive to trade up to the newest technology available. However, among the bright spots in the industry are some substantial warning signs. The large number of employees has made employee safety an issue and could be a significant added labor expense in the coming years, which will severely limit profitability. In addition, product safety groups will continue to lobby for safer vehicles that could add additional costs to manufacturing. Finally, the economic health of the Big Three is an unknown factor and will remain so until the US Congress acts and the automakers make concrete plans for their future viability. The industry must be prepared to offer a vehicle that the consumer wants to purchase. This is a considerable obstacle and any action regarding investments must consider this major drawback.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Hristian theology - Research Paper Example The central theological event that defines the religious center of Christianity is the event of the crucifixion with the subsequent resurrection. The basic concept of Christian belief is that Jesus died on the cross to take the burden of sin from mankind and was then reborn in order to activate salvation for those who believe. Salvation is a matter of belief and is not earned through good acts. Another important belief is that when Christ died, the curtain was torn in the temple, thus opening communication between God and his people without the need of an intermediary priest. However, Catholicism still maintains the intermediary between the flock and God through their priests. According to Smith, Ã¢â¬Å"Faith in JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ resurrection produced the Church and its ChristologyÃ¢â¬ (324). The resurrection is the event that signals the divinity of Christ. According to Thiessen, there are several reasons that the resurrection is important. The first is that through the witness of th e apostles of the events of the resurrection, truth must be believed otherwise the recorded events are a fallacy that strips all of the rest of the history of its truth. In other words, if one aspect is false, it puts into question all of the other aspects of the story of the life of Jesus. The second reason is that in rising from the dead, Jesus was then able to Ã¢â¬Å"baptize the believer in the Holy SpiritÃ¢â¬ (Thiessen 243). In Romans, Paul makes clear that through the resurrection, man is reconciled with God, thus providing for salvation (Thiessen 244). Baptism, an act in which water is either sprinkled, poured, or within which a person is immersed, provides an introduction of the person into the supernatural world through the... This paper demonstrates the Christian religion. The basic theology of the Christian religion is based upon the stories of the four Gospels which create a structure in which the life of Jesus is revealed. The birth of Jesus is told to have occurred as a miracle of conception. Mary is said to have been a virgin when she became pregnant. Near the time she must give birth, Mary and her husband Joseph traveled to his native home in Bethlehem in order to register in a census. As there is no room in the inn, they are given space in a stable to spend the night where Mary gives birth to her son. The central theological event that defines the religious center of Christianity is the event of the crucifixion with the subsequent resurrection. The basic concept of Christian belief is that Jesus died on the cross to take the burden of sin from mankind and was then reborn in order to activate salvation for those who believe. Salvation is a matter of belief and is not earned through good acts. Anothe r important belief is that when Christ died, the curtain was torn in the temple, thus opening communication between God and his people without the need of an intermediary priest. However, Catholicism still maintains the intermediary between the flock and God through their priests. While there are a great number of theological discussions available about the nature of Christianity, the basic stories of his being exalted at birth, of his ministry, the crucifixion and resurrection define the central being of Jesus as the core of the nature of salvation.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Human Trafficking Case Study - Research Paper Example Men are also very susceptible for trafficking. They are mainly trafficked by worldwide criminal organizations. There are several cases in which human trafficking takes place. Some of the cases are whereby people are convinced into going to other countries with the promise of getting better jobs and comfortable lives. Mostly, it always turns out to be untrue. This context discusses hundreds of workers from Thailand being promised high wages by the California based company named Global Horizons Inc and instead paying them little to nothing while treating them like scum, taking their passports on arrival and threatening deportation (Bureau of National Affairs, 2007). Human trafficking is one of the most dangerous forms of discrimination. Thailand experiences major challenges as a source, passage and destination country on human trafficking mainly women and children. The tendency of trafficking for enforced labor is rising in level in the agricultural, construction and fishing organizati ons. Human trafficking is a modern correspondent of slavery (Crawford, 2009). Opposing their will, thousands of people around the globe are enforced to work for the benefit of other people. For instance by becoming beggars, prostitutes, working in sweatshops, unintentional servitude or even turning into child soldiers. People that are trafficked are usually enslaved or in circumstances of debt oppression that are deceitful and oppressive. Traffickers will carry away or mistreat the fundamental human rights of their victims, who most possibly have been tricked and enticed by fake promises or physically enforced into their circumstances. Trafficking is a regular practice to convince people to leave their homes and move to neighboring countries that are wealthier where they can work in services like domestic services, adult care or waiter and waitresses in restaurants. Upon advent, their passports, visa, and return permits are taken away from them, efficiently; these people are impriso ned, either bodily or financially or psychologically. The trafficked people are made to labor as household slaves or as agricultural or industrial unit workers, in slave-like circumstances. The trafficked people virtually do not see their money that they earn, and finally they are sold. Because every person wants to have a good life, people get easily lured when being promised a good life, which in turn never comes to be true and instead they turn out to be slaves when they are taken to the foreign countries. Once passports and other legal documents are taken from these people, they become helpless since they are threatened in several ways. There are various causes for human trafficking. People around the world, benefit in satisfaction and in price of mistreating others. Poverty and worldwide inequalities in the rule of law are situations in which human trafficking, like HIV/AIDS and other killers of the underprivileged, thrives. In regions of the world that are poorer where learnin g and employment chances are inadequate, are the most susceptible in society. Runways, immigrant, or people who are displaced are the most frequent sufferers of human trafficking. People who are looking for chances and access to other countries may possibly be taken by traffickers and deceived into believing that they will be liberated subsequent to being smuggled across the boundary. Global Horizons Inc is farm labor contractor which is Beverly Hills California based. Global Horizons is challenged to have engaged in a pattern or performance of
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Informative on Hybrid Cars Essay Introduction I. A hybrid car is a vehicle with more than one power source such as a small internal combustion engine and an electric motor. II. Most hybrids only use gasoline when needed. The electric motor, powered by a stack of rechargeable batteries, is the primary workhorse for propulsion under low-speed driving. III. When you think of a hybrid vehicle, you may find yourself thinking Toyota Prius. 1. Toyota Prius was the first mass produced hybrid vehicle. IV. According to Toyota Motor Corp. a hybrid system combines different power sources to maximize each oneÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths, while compensating the othersÃ¢â¬â¢ short comings. IV. Today I am going to inform you on the history about hybrid vehicle and explain the different hybrid platforms and how they work. Body I. The first hybrid vehicle was not the Toyota Prius, nor was it invented in the 2000s or even the 1990s. Although the many reasons that brought the hybrid vehicle into existence are similar to those living in the 21st century; ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) equipped vehicles were too noisy and produce too much toxic emission. 1. The first Hybrid Vehicle was brought forth by Viennese coach builder named Jacob Lohner. Lohner turned to a young Austrian engineer by the name of Ferdinand Porsche. Lohner asked Porsche to incorporate his patent electric wheel-hub design into a Coach that belonged to Lohner. The result was the Lohner-Porsche Elektromobil in 1896. 2. Toyota launched the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first mass-produced hybrid vehicle, in Japan known at the Toyota Prius. A. over 37,000 sold in Japan before the vehicle was introduced to the U. S. Market in 2000. 3. Honda and Toyota both release their hybrid vehicles available to the U. S. Market. A. Honda released the 2000 Honda Insight in 1999. B. Toyota released their 2001 Toyota Prius in 2000. II. There are two common types of Hybrid vehicle platforms, Mild-Parallel hybrid and Series hybrid. 1. A Mild-Parallel hybrid vehicle has an internal combustion engine that is equipped with an electric motor, both in parallel configuration, meaning they both provide propulsion to move the vehicle forward. This configuration allows the gasoline engine to be shut off while coasting, braking or being at a complete stop yet will restart with minimal delay. A. Some mild hybrids will also be equipped with regenerative braking that will essentially charge the battery packs under braking. B. Mild hybrids are not capable of exclusively operating on the Electric motor. 2. A Series hybrid platform, sometimes referred to as range-extending electric vehicles (REEV) incorporate a configuration by design to be operated mostly by the battery, but will have an ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) to recharge the battery when enduring a long drive. B. Series hybridÃ¢â¬â¢s only have electric motors to provide propulsion while maintaining an exceptionally high power to weight ratio providing enough torque over a broad range of speeds. C. The gasoline engine drives an electric generator which charges the battery bank at which point the electric motor use the power from the battery bank to drive the vehicle. Conclusion In conclusion today I have informed you all about the first existence of the hybrid vehicle which was created by Ferdinand Porsche, known as the Elektromobil. The common types of configurations that are available, which include Mild-Parallel hybrid and Series hybrid vehicles. I hope you have found this information useful Prius a possible hybrid purchase in the future and an Insight to hybrid vehicles. Works Cited Nice, Karim, and Julia Layton. How Hybrid Cars Work 20, July 2000. http://auto. howstuffworks. com/hybrid-car. htm FuelEconomy. gov http://auto. howstuffworks. com/hybrid-car11. htm Eng, Paul. Ã¢â¬Å"How do Hybrid Cars Work? Ã¢â¬ 1, October 2010. http://abcnews. go. com/Technology/Hybrid/story? id=97518page=1#. UVPJ9Fe1vpA www. Toyota. com Ã¢â¬Å"Prius 2013Ã¢â¬ 2012. http://www. toyota. com/prius/#! /features Lampton, Christopher. What is the history of hybrid cars? 09 April 2009 http://auto. howstuffworks. com/fuel-efficiency/hybrid-technology/history-of-hybrid-cars. html Green, Hank. Ã¢â¬Å"The Rise of the REEVÃ¢â¬ January, 01 2008. http://www. ecogeek. org/content/view/1298/
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Miller associates Essay Miller uses language carefully throughout the play to create various atmospheres. In Proctors meeting with Abigail, emotions were running high, and there was a certain amount of fission and sexual chemistry between them. The atmosphere here was passionate, angry and lustful. This is a direct contrast to the start of act two, as Proctor talks with his wife, Elizabeth. The atmosphere is cold and formal. There is no chemistry between the two, and we begin to understand why Proctor was so tempted by Abigail. It is clear to see there is a spark between them, whereas his relationship with Elizabeth is sterile and dull. Miller associates Proctor with fire and burning he burned with lust for Abigail, and then with guilt. This imagery makes us think of danger, the devil and witchcraft. The connotations of fire, especially in a society such as Salem are of hell and burning in hell for eternity. This also links in with the title; Miller chose the title of The Crucible to demonstrate Proctors metaphorical journey. Proctor is like the metals that go in the crucible to be purged of all impurities. Proctor comes out at the end with no impurities. Proctor says, its winter in here yet Elizabeth. This quote suggests their relationship is still not mended, and shows us just how cold it really is, not only in their home, but their relationship. Winter is an effective metaphor because it demonstrates Elizabeths coldness towards Proctor. The Proctors are struggling to heal a rift in their marriage and this is portrayed by Elizabeths coldness, silence and Proctors fiery outbursts. Proctor also compares his house to a court; I cannot speak but I am doubted, every moment judged for lies, as though I come into a court when I come into this house. Proctor still hasnt regained Elizabeths trust and is frustrated by her scepticism. However, he is also angry with himself, as he knows that he has given her a good reason to act this way, and he cant expect her not to, as it was his wrong doing that is causing her to behave in this manner. Proctor feels that Elizabeth judges him, Let you look sometimes for the goodness in me, and judge me not. Elizabeth says it is Proctor that judges himself, The magistrate sits in your heart that judges you. She understands how guilty he feels, but knows Proctor must atone before he can resolve his marriage and regain his self respect. He considers himself a fraud for betraying his own vision of decent conduct. Proctor is disappointed in himself for not being strong enough to resist temptation and for betraying his wife, and he regrets this deeply. The only way Proctor can make up for his sins is to atone, until then he is tortured by his actions. Elizabeth is the only one who understands his need for atonement. At first Proctor is reluctant to expose the truth about Abigail. This shows us he is afraid to hurt Abigail and possibly expose himself as a lecher, but he is also afraid of embarrassing his wife. It is only at the end of act two when Elizabeth is under threat that Proctor knows he must tell the truth. Proctor feels guilty when Elizabeth is accused because he knows it is Abigails way of getting back at them; getting back at John for leaving her, and getting back at Elizabeth for having what she wants, and for dismissing her from working in her home. Proctor must sacrifice his good name, which is one of his most prized possessions to save his wife. This shows us how much he truly loves Elizabeth, even though they have grown apart. They no longer have any chemistry between them, as John and Abigail do, but they have a strong bond, which is the basis of their relationship. Abigail desires vengeance against Elizabeth, because she sees Elizabeth as the only obstacle between her and Proctor. Elizabeths arrest is an opportunity for Proctor to atone his sins and wrong-doing, because he can come clean and confess his affair, and save Elizabeth, and rectify his marriage. In doing this, he also shows the court how sinful and bad Abigail really is. Until this point, all the people in the community, with the exception of the other young girls, has seen Abigail as a sweet, innocent girl, caught up in witchcraft. Proctors confession horrifies Abigail, as she realises that this could endanger her. Proctor is the only person who seems to see that the girls are making up these lies of witchcraft to save themselves from being whipped. Events have conspired against Proctor and the public crisis in Salem has become his own personal nightmare. His initial intention to save Elizabeth grows to a wider purpose, of saving his friends and exposing the corrupt authority and the girls lies and deceit. Parris tries to accuse Proctor of trying to overthrow the court, and this accusation only shows us that the court was purely biased and any defence was treated as an attack on the court. Proctor sacrifices his good name by admitting to the court his affair with Abigail, and at this point, we see that he has now become completely desperate, I beg you, sir, I beg you. He is so determined to save Elizabeth that he will beg the court and totally humiliate himself. This shows his sheer desperation and Proctor swallowing his pride for the sake of the community and the people he loves; this is his attempt to atone, and prove his love for Elizabeth. When asked if Proctor committed adultery Elizabeth ironically lies and says she has know knowledge of John being unfaithful. She lies to protect him and save his good name and reputation, even if it meant she as still accused. But, in doing this, she also protects Abigail, and her claims of witchcraft become more credible to the courts once again. This, gives us further sympathy for John, as he has thrown away his good name, and yet, it got him nowhere. Elizabeths denial, however, shows that despite Proctors affair, Proctor and Elizabeth are still deeply in love as they are both willing to sacrifice themselves for each other. This shows their relationship is strong but they just have problems communicating their feelings and the affair brought a barrier down between them. We also see here, where the obstacle between John and Abigail was Elizabeth, the obstacle between John and Elizabeth is Abigail, as it is because of her jealousy and accusations that Elizabeth is imprisoned. The consequences of Elizabeths only lie is that Proctor is accused of witchcraft and will hang unless he lies and confesses. The irony here is that if he tells the truth, the truth is seen as a lie, yet if he lies, the lie is seen as the truth. This seems to be the moral of the town throughout the play: Only those who lie survive. However, being a religious town, it is seen that liars will go to hell and be damned when they die. This is why the good, religious people of the community, such as Martha Corey and Rebecca Nurse, refuse to confess to witchcraft to save themselves. They refuse to sin for the sake of a lie. At the end of Act three, Proctor is accused of witchcraft, just as Miller, and many others, were accused of communism during the McCarthy witch hunts. The parallels between Proctor and Miller are the paranoia and mass hysteria that was surrounding them and the fear they felt. Neither Proctor nor Miller confessed, and neither would give names of their friends. Proctor is now is now in open conflict with the court. His friends rely on him and his life is in the balance. This scene has endeared us, the audience to him because we see his utter desperation and the way he will sacrifice himself for Elizabeth and the way he protects his friends. We sympathise with him because he has a tough decision to make, life or death, wrong or right. He is struggling with his morals too, as he cannot help his friends if he is dead, yet he doesnt have it in him to confess to a sin he hasnt committed.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Concept Of Film Authorship Arising in France in the late 1940s, the auteur was a cinematic theory created by Andre Bazin and Alexandre Astruc, and introduced in the French film magazine Cahiers du Cinema. Francois Truffaut and Jean-Luc Godard were the first to coined the phrase la politique des Auteurs, suggesting the theory of the director as author. The idea was to advance the cause of cinema as a legitimate art form by awarding the director with the status of an artist. Both Truffaut and Godard believed that directors should use the commercial device of film making the way a painter uses a brush, or writer uses a pen, and, through the mise en scÃ ¨ne, impress his or her vision apon the work. The idea was that a film is most valuable when it is the product of the director, and his personal style. Thus in film authorship, the influences of the director can be seen through all of his works, often at times exhibiting aspects of their personal life portrayed through out each film. Ideally, one could watch a film without previously knowing who directed it and then be able to identify who was responsible for its creation. Simply put, the auteur theory acts to describe the mark of a film director on his films and a style that he distinctly owns. Much like one can look at a painting and tell if it is a Picasso, if a film director is an auteur, one can look at his film and tell by its style and recurring themes that a certain director made it. According to the authorship theory, it does not matter whether or not the director writes his own films, the cinematographer, actors, and others involved in its creation are of secondary if any consideration. The film is said to reflect the vision and the mind of the director through the choices he makes in his film, including his casting of crew and actors. Naturally, a great deal of criticism surrounds such a suggestion. As Philip Halsall (2002) points out film is clearly a collaborative process, even in the smallest of productions, and to elevate the status of the director is to belittle the contributions of other creative personnel such as the cinematographer, the editor, the sound man, and the actors. For a director to be considered a true auteur, Andrew Sarris declared, (HYPERLINK http://www.britishfilm.org.uk/lynch/biblio.html#sarrisNotes on the Auteur Theory in 1962HYPERLINK http://www.britishfilm.org.uk/lynch/biblio.html#sarris) a premise must exist whereby the distinguishable personality of the director is a criterion of value. Over a group of films, a director must exhibit certain recurring characteristics of style, which serve as his signature. One notable auteur, whose filmography has expanded over three decades, is David Lynch. A David Lynch film produces distinctly notable traits readily observed by the amateur, and commanded by the aficionado. His individual surrealist style has defied description thus necessitating the creation of a new term of classification, aptly titled Lynchian. Lynchs films are aesthetically progressive with inherently conservative subject matter hidden behind a postmodern veneer. Thematically repetitive, a David Lynch film involves parallel worlds both literally and the metaphorically contrasted elements of evil and innocence, weirdness and normality, the absurd and the macabre. The use of duplicity, extensive use of dreams and dream like nightmarish sequences, an obsession with the clandestine, extreme graphic violence and sadistic masochistic sexuality are all fixtures in some form. Lynchian created protagonists are tortured souls constructing illusions to escape their reality, when these fantasies unravel, in the case of Lost Highway, Mulholland Drive, Twin Peaks: Fire Walk With Me, The Elephant Man and Eraserhead, the only alternative is death. For those characters that manage to survive a Lynch film, the idea of a happy conclusion is parodied in a contrived manner, the image of the mechanical robin in Blue Velvet mocking such an improbable end. Lynchs juxtaposition of the homely and the eccentric is re-occurring fixation. Nothing is ever as it seems, there is always a more ominous existence lying beneath the surface or hidden behind the curtains. In Blue Velvet, Lynch created an idyllic suburbia drawing on conventions from teenage movies of the 50s, he presents a Happy Days/American Graffiti nostalgia to the point of parody, to give a contrast to the dark other world that is inevitably co-existent. (Philip Halsall (2002) The idealised picturesque world is contrasted with a more sinister dystopian one by employing Lynchs continuing engagement of conventional noir aesthetics. The picture perfect Grease type dynamic in Blue Velvet including the demure blonde debutante Sandy, is balanced by an exceedingly disturbing and menacing underbelly, centred on a dangerous and fairly unstable femme fatale. The femme fatale and its iconography can be scene in almost all Lynchian films. The portrayal of a highly sexualised woman, she is the figure of danger and unattainable desire. She is often filmed in a distinctly voyeuristic manner as scene in Blue Velvet when Jeremy hides in a cupboard and watches Dorothy undress, and in Lost Highway when Alice is forced to strip for Mr Eddy. Lynch utilizes duplicity of characters and motifs as a tactic to reinforce the parallel and to suggest alternative realities. The use of doubles is a traditional convention of dream like realities that can be seen as far back as characters from the Wizard of Oz, a film that Lynch is a self-proclaimed admirer of. Lynch also engages in acts of cinematic self-referentiality. The Black Lodge in Twin Peaks is resurrected in different forms in both Lost Highway and Mulholland Drive. The magical box is Hellraiser, a central ingredient to the narrative returns as the blue box in Mulholland Drive, symbolic of a portal between two worlds. Curtains are an interconnected motif and similar form of self-referntiality. They can be seen in the Elephant Man as he is revealed on stage, draped heavily almost engulfing Fred as he wanders down the dark hallway in Lost Highway and consuming the opening sequence of Blue Velvet the use of curtains points to looming darkness, the sinister undertone of whats hidden behind them. Lynchs films offer an artistic form to the contemporary efforts of post-classical Hollywood. Lynch has developed a signatory approach of unconventional narrative, consistent thematic expressions and a distinctly visual style recognizable to both audiences and critics worldwide. However, this cannot be proclaimed so evidently for all of Lynchs films. Dune (1984) was both a critical and commercial disaster and perceived as the least lynchian of his films. Shunned even by Lynch himself, Dune epitomises the constraints and compromises of artistic expression by the commercial demands of auteurism. I didnt really feel I really had permission to make it [Dune] my own. That was the downfall for me. It was a problem. Dune was like a kind of studio film. I didnt have final cut. And, little by little, I was subconsciously making compromises knowing I couldnt go here and not wanting to go there. (Rodley 1997, 119-120). David Lynch quote For David Lynch and many other auteurs, the focus on a films potential for box office returns, by the studios and the financial backers, becomes the catalyst for tremendous artistic limitation. There is a contradiction in cinema between the commercial need to maintain the ideology of the creative artists and a simultaneous need to redefine ownership in terms of capital, rather than creative investment. (Theories of authorship, Caughie, pg 2. Brecht and the film industry, Screen 16, Ben Brewster, pg 16-33). The auteur as a commercial oddity coincides with the contemporary status of the auteur as a celebrity. Contemporary auteurs are for the most part, labelled by their commercial status and their ability to promote a film. The idea of the auteur-star alternates the director in place of the actor as the main drawcard. As much as an actors acclaimed performance can carry or redeem a script, the auteur-star has the ability to carry and redeem any sort of textual material. (The Commerce of Auteurism, A Cinema Without Walls: Movie and Culture After Vietnam. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1991, pg.104) The auteur as a business entity is less a matter of artistic accomplishments and more about attaining a status that sells both the film to the audience, and the director to a studio. (New Hollywood cinema: an introduction, By Geoff King pg.115) The idea of the auteur-star is seen commercially as a means of publicity and advertisement. Meaghan Morris noted that today the primary modes of film and auteurs packaging are advertising, review snippeting, trailers, magazine profiles always ready in appropriation as the precondition, and not the postproduction of meaning. (pg 91 Film theory: critical concepts in media and cultural studies, By Philip Simpson, Andrew Utterson, Karen J. Shepherdson Taylor Francis, 2004) Our primary access to the auteur is not seen directly through his/her films but through controlled media mediums such as television, websites, and award ceremonies. (An introduction to film studies, By Jill Nelmes, pg.139) Before David Lynchs Twin Peaks hit mainstream America it was backed by an explosion of teaser advertising, it was hailed as the show that would change the face of network television forever on the September 1989 cover of Connoisseur magazine, long before the pilot had gone to air. Overnight, it seemed, there were board games, guidebooks and even Bart Simpson Killed Laura Palmer T-shirts. The constant marketing and promotion of an auteur film communicates information to a large number of audiences who may know the makers reputation but have never seen the films. The auteur is then seen as commercial tactic for promoting associations and controlling audience reception. By listing a director in the films title, as some kind of brand, guarantees a relationship between the audience and the film and conditions the way it will be viewed and received. (The Commerce of Auteurism, A Cinema Without Walls: Movie and Culture After Vietnam. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1991, pg.102) To react to a movie as primarily a Lynch film, for example, is the refusal to form any evaluative response. For the audience, much of the enjoyment lies in already being able to know the gist of the film as a product of the creators generated public image. 3. Textual auteurism 4. Critical auteurism as a category Auteurism is a critical category, in the sense of understanding the author as a critical construct rather than a person. The ability to identify Hitchcock as a group of structuring principles that could be engineered from a critical examination of films, but bearing no necessary relation to the small, fat, male person who routinely appeared in each of these movies.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Profile of Ivan Pavlov was born on September 14, 1849 in the village of Ryazan, Russia, the son of Peter Dmitrievich Pavlov, who was the village priest. Because he was the son of a priest he went to church school and enrolled in a theology seminar. As the son of a preacher Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was going to follow in his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s footsteps, that was until he read a book by Charles Darwin called Ã¢â¬Å"The Origin of SpeciesÃ¢â¬ After reading this book Ivan Pavlov dropped out of his theological studies and enrolled in a Natural Science program in the University of St-Petersburg. After enrolling in the University of St-Petersburg Ivan Petrovich Pavlov discovered his passion, physiology. Physiology is the branch of biology dealing with the functions and activities of living organisms and their body parts, including all physical and chemical processes. It was here that Ivan Pavlov in collaboration with a fellow classmate wrote his first paper on Ã¢â¬Å"The Physiology of the Pancreatic NervesÃ¢â¬ Ivan Pavlov received his first gold medal for this paper. This however is not the only gold medal that Ivan received; he went on to winning the Nobel Prize in Medicine/ Physiology in 1904 Ã¢â¬Å"in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject have been transformed and enlargedÃ¢â¬ Nobelprize.org. During his 1904 Nobel Prize address he presented his theory on Classic Conditioning. Ivan Pavlov was also elected as the Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1907, given an honorary doctor ate at Cambridge University in 1912, and awarded the Order of the Legion of Honour in 1915. But these were not the studies that made him famous in the psychology world; it was his study of the canine digest... ...dwich. But I did eat the food from Johnny Rockets right before I started throwing up. So I paired the food from Johnny Rockets with throwing up and the feeling of nausea, and because food is a primary reinforce it only took one time for me to pair nausea and food poisoning with Johnny Rockets. My conditioned response to Johnny Rockets is nauseated feeling. Works Cited Ã¢â¬ ¢ "Ivan Pavlov - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 10 Dec 2011 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1904/pavlov-bio.html Ã¢â¬ ¢ "Pavlov's Dog". Nobelprize.org. 10 Dec 2011 http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/pavlov/readmore.html Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Ivan PavlovÃ¢â¬ . http://www.muskingum.edu. Mindy Lautenheiser. May 1999 http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/pavlov.htm Ã¢â¬ ¢ Saundra K. Ciccarelli, J. Noland White. Ã¢â¬Å"PsychologyÃ¢â¬ . Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2006
Colonization and the Black Man's Struggle Slavery was one of the most horrific and in human acts ever instilled on a race of people ever in our world's history. People were stolen from their homelands, broken apart from their families, and were thrust into a lifestyle that inhibited their every move and instilled harsh punishments on them. It is almost impossible for many of us to comprehend the mindsets that these slave owners possessed, but history paints a truly horrific and emotional picture for us all to see. In speaking about slavery many quickly think of the African struggle under the possession of the whites, but slavery is not nearly as recent an occurrence as 1492 when Columbus reached the New World. For thousands of years slaves have been used for means of menial labor and the general dirty work of the more wealthy proprietors. Slaves were used in the creation of the pyramids in Egypt, work on Mayan temples in South America, and even used by the Mongols in northern Asia as a part of the Mongolian fighting machine. The enslavement of the Africans, however, created a legacy of oppression and tyranny that carried on much longer after the abolition of the systems. The reason for this is that African slaves were not looked upon as humans at all, but as a commodity that could be abused and sold purely for the purpose of making a profit. In most other instances of slavery throughout history motives like religion and love for a king drove the souls of the men and women laborers. This is the major striking difference between the Africans enslaved by the white man from the early fifteen hundreds until today. Although today slavery is abolished in all of Europe and America the people of Africa are still in a sense enslaved by... ... domination over others. Bibliography Barrett, E. Leonard. (1997). The Rastafarians. Boston: Beacon Press. Bridges, George. (1828). The Annals of Jamaica. London: Frank Cass and Company Limited. Carley, Mary. (1963). Jamaica: Old and the New. New York: Fredrick A. Praeger Publishing. Floyd, Berry. (1979). Jamaica- an Island Microcosm. New York: Saint Peters Press. Gardner, W. J. (1873). A History of Jamaica. London: Frank Cass and Company Limited. Green, Cencilia. (1997). Historical Roots of Modern Caribbean Politics. Against the Current. Vol. 12, (4), 34-38. Hart, Richard. (1999). Towards Decolonisation: Political, Labour, and Economic Development in Jamaica. Kingston: Canoe Press. Manley, Michael. (1975). A Voice at the Workplace. Washington D. C.: Howard University Press. Verrill, A. Hyatt. (1931). Jamaica of Today. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Franklin D. Roosevelt: An Influential Leader Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) was a man of unusual charm and great optimism, which he was able to communicate to others. He had a broad smile and was a charismatic optimist whose confidence helped sustain the nation through its darkest moments during crisis like the Great Depression and World War II. He became one of the most beloved of U.S. presidents for four terms in office. But beneath his outward friendliness was an inner reserve and an iron will. His admirers emphasized the way in which he met the nation's problems. They praised him for insisting that the federal government must help the underprivileged and that the United States must share in the responsibility for preserving world peace. Franklin Roosevelt made a profound and very important impact upon his times and his policies exerted great influence on the future (Freidel). Assuming the Presidency in 1932, at the depth of the Great Depression, Roosevelt helped the American people regain faith in themselves. He brought hope to the people when he promised prompt, vigorous action, and asserted in his Inaugural Address, "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself" (The White House). FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s first one hundred days in office were known as "The Hundred Days" (The Great Depression). The main drive of Roosevelt's administration was toward a balance of economic interests. He believed that he should represent all the people--farmers, laborers, and white-collar workers as well as businessmen (The Great Depression). With this in mind, he presented a wide variety of legislation to Congress, which brought relief to the needy and helped improve the economy. This legislation gave authorization to a sweeping program that was designed to bring reform, recovery to business and agriculture, relief to the unemployed and to those in danger of losing farms or homes. "T he Hundred Days" set a new standard for Presidents and members of Congress that followed Roosevelt (The Great Depression). The first order of business for FDR tackled was the banking crisis. Since the start of the Depression, Americans had lost their lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s savings. Roosevelt recognized that if he kept the banks open, panicked depositors would withdraw their money and more banks would fail. FDR declared a Ã¢â¬Å"bank holidayÃ¢â¬ during which time a hastily prepared emergency banking bill gave the Secretary o... ...pe it needed to revive itself by delivering prompt and vigorous action. Roosevelt held office during two of the greatest crises ever faced by the United States: the Great Depression of the 1930s, followed by World War II. His domestic program, known as the New Deal, introduced far-reaching reforms within the free enterprise system and gave people a new perspective on government. FDR rallied the country after the near disaster of Pearl Harbor, mobilizing over ten million troops. His military and diplomatic skill as the Commander in Chief during World War II, won him an award in the hearts of many Americans. Both in peacetime and in war, his impact on the office of president was enormous, making him one of the most influential leaders in US history. Works Cited American Experience: The Presidents. September 7, 2004, Boorstin, D. J., Kelley, B.M., and Boorstein, R. F., A History of the United States. Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing, 2003. 624, 659-60. Freidel, Frank. Ã¢â¬ Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the New Deal.Ã¢â¬ The New Book of Knowledge. 2004 ed. September 7, 2004, The Great Depression: FDR and the Depression. September 7, 2004, The White House. September 7, 2004,
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Food is an integral part of human life providing energy for cellular activities to keep us healthy. According to World Health Organization (2013), healthy nutrition is ingesting an adequate and well balanced diet in relation to the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s dietary needs and when combined with regular physical activities is the cornerstone to good health. A diet containing the right portions of all the five food groups of the Eatwell Plate (figure1 and appendix1 for recommended servings) known as a balanced diet will provide the organic macronutrients including proteins, carbohydrates and lipids and the micronutrients, vitamins and minerals to sustain life. Only ingested carbohydrates, proteins and lipids will count towards total caloric intake and will be digested into monomers like glucose for absorption and assimilation. National Health Service (2012) recommends daily caloric intake of 2500Kcal and 2000Kcal which will be derived from the proteins, lipids and carbohydrate sources in a diet for average adult males and females respectively. Age, sex, health condition and physical activities influence dietary needs. This essay will discuss a balanced diet for an adult including the structure, sources, functions, recommended daily allowance (RDAs), deficiency and excessive effects of the macronutrients. Also the micronutrients and water which are not considered as nutrients will be discussed. THE FOOD PYRAMID [pic]Figure1 (NHS 2011) Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. British Nutrition Foundation (2013), recommends that 47.7% (203g) and 48.5% (275g) of daily energy should come from carbohydrates for females and males respectively with 29g being roughages. Carbohydrates exist naturally or refined as monosaccharides that are reducing sugars. Monosaccharides build the complex carbohydrates, disaccharides and polysaccharides through dehydration synthesis. Monosaccharides have general formula (CH2O)n where Ã¢â¬ËnÃ¢â¬â¢ determines whether pentose(5Carbons) or hexose (6Carbons). Glucose found in maple syrup, fructose in corn syrup and galactose in honey are hexose-isomers; having the same formula, C6H12O6 but different structures. The disaccharides with the general formula C12H22O11 are sucrose made from fructose and glucose, maltose from two glucose molecules and lactose from galactose and glucose. Sucrose is derived from beet sugar, lactose from milk and maltose from vinegar. The polysaccharides with general formula (C6H10O5)n where 40Ã¢â° ¤nÃ¢â° ¤3000, exist as starch or non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) which can be soluble or insoluble. Starch consists of glucose molecules joined by glycosidic bonds. The NSPs include oligosaccharide (raffinose) and cellulose (dietary fibre). Potatoes, yams and cassava are rich in starch and are very digestible. Whole grain cereals, legumes (appendix2), fruits and storage vegetables like asparagus and cabbage are rich in the NSPs. Raffinose is an indigestible trisaccharide of fructose,glucose and galactose with formula C18H32O16. Animal sources of carbohydrates are liver and scallops. Carbohydrates provide sweetness and are the primary source of energy especially for brain and blood cells. Cellular respiration converts glucose monomers into ATP. Fats cannot be oxidised without glucose. Most NSPs are partially digestible or indigestible due to lack of Ã ±-galactosidae (enzyme) in GI Tract. They reduce glycaemia index and plasma cholesterol levels, increase bile acid excretion, promote normal laxation and prevent breast cancer, gallstones, haemorrhoids, and irritable bowel syndrome (Kumar et all 2012). Furthermore, Kumar (2012) concluded that excessive carbohydrates will cause dental decay, kidney damage, stroke, diabetes due to obesity and short term conditions like hyperglycaemia. Carbohydrate deficiency will cause constipation, fatigue, weak immunity, muscle cramps and ketosis; this is very rare as 50g/day of carbohydrate is needed to prevent ketosis. THE DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS TO FORM MALTOSE [pic]Figure2 EQUATION: (C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 = C12H22O11 + H2O) (Marshall University 2012) Proteins or polypeptides consist of three to 100000 or more long chains of the organic molecules called amino acids joined together by covalent peptide bonds. A protein of two amino acids is called a dipeptide. There are 20 common forms of amino acids either termed non-essential (synthesised by the liver) and essential that needs to be ingested. Proteins consist of a central carbon atom, a hydrogen atom, amino group (-NH2), Carboxylic group (-COOH) and the variable R group (figure3). The term amino acid is derived from the amino and carboxylic groups that all amino acids have in common. According Kuil (2012), principal sources of proteins are lean meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, cereals, legumes (refer to appendix3), cereals and processed food like low-fat milk. Proteins form about 45% of human body and perform the following seven essential functions: structural (hair, ligaments), contractile (muscles), transport (haemoglobin), metabolic regulation (enzymes), buffering, defence (antibodies) and coordination and control (hormones) (Martini 2006). Haemoglobin transports oxygen and a lack of protein (haemoglobin) can deny vital organs the needed oxygen for metabolism. Protein deficiency can also cause fatigue, anaemia, weak immunity, skin problems, impairment of cognition and mental health problems. Whereas excessive proteins can cause obesity, osteoporosis and kidney stones (Georgetown University 2012). About 15% of an adultsÃ¢â¬â¢ caloric intake should come from protein equivalent to 56g and 46g for male and female respectively (Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention, 2012). DEHYDRATION OF AMINO ACIDS TO FORM DIPEPTIDE PROTEINS [pic]Figure3 (Marshall University 2012) Lipids are made up of an even number of carbon from 12 to 20, oxygen, hydrogen and sometimes traces of phosphorus, sulphur or nitrogen. Lipids are grouped into 4: steroids, phospholipids, waxes and glycerides. Most of the 70 identified lipids are synthesised by the body whereas linoleic (omega6) and alpha-linolenic (omega3) acids are two essential lipids to be ingested. They are mostly insoluble due to the long chain of hydrophobic carbon-carbon end bonded to a short hydrophilic carboxyl group. The double covalent bond, (C=C) determines whether saturated (no C=C) or monounsaturated (1 C=C) or polyunsaturated (2 or more C=C). Glycerides are made up of glycerol bonded to 1 or more fatty acids by dehydration synthesis, triglyceride with 3 fatty acids is the predominant of the lipids (refer figure4). Unsaturated sources of lipids are olive oil, peanut, salmon, halibut and avocados. Saturated sources are butter, sausage and hydrogenated oil. According to British Dietetic Association (2013), adults should consume not more than 20-30g of saturated-fat with 5g or less being trans-fat since saturated lipids are high in cholesterol. The structural lipids form cell membranes. Also fat cushions and protects organs including liver, heart, and kidney, energy source; twice as much as carbohydrates and proteins, thermoregulation (insulation), sex hormones, transport vitamins and monounsaturated fat can decrease cholesterol levels (USA Department of Agriculture, 2010). Excessive consumption of lipids will lead to obesity which is characterised by high BMI as shown in appendix 2, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, colorectal cancer and diabetes, whereas deficiency will result in the body lacking the vital vitamins A,D,E and K (Schenker, 2012). DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS TO FORM TRIGLYCERIDE [pic]Figure4 (Marshall University 2012) The micronutrients, vitamins and minerals are needed in minute quantities. Minerals can be classified as major or trace of which a few are essential including sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron, calcium, iodine, etc. (refer to appendix4 for RDAs). According to Higdon and Drake (2011), sources of minerals are plants that derive them from the soil and move on the food chain to the herbivores like cattle that eat them. Spinach, legumes, whole grains, dairy products, red meat, soybeans, salmon, cod, iodised table salt (iodine, sodium, chlorine) and eggs are excellent sources of minerals. According to Whitley and Rolfes (2011), minerals perform the following functions: the electrolytes, sodium, potassium and chlorine transmit nerve impulses, control fluid balance (providing optimum pH for enzyme activities), control blood pressure and relax and contract muscles. Zinc, copper and selenium are antioxidants; they reduce the risk of heart diseases. Iron forms haemoglobin. Sodium and potassium coregulate ATP production. Calcium and phosphorus control blood clotting and together with magnesium build bones, teeth, maintain muscle and nerve cells. Iodine is needed for the production of thyroxin; deficiency will cause goitre. Since some minerals are coenzymes, deficiency will cause malfunctioning cellular activities (digestion, metabolism). Iron deficiency causes anaemia whereas calcium, phosphorus and magnesium (hypocalcaemia) deficiency will cause osteoporosis. Calcium, magnesium and the electrolytes deficiencies will cause weakness, muscle cramps and impaired alertness. Zinc deficiency causes diarrhoea, skin and prostate cancers. Their intake should be balanced with use and excretion as excess may cause Hyperkalaemia (potassium), kidney-stones (calcium) and hypernatremia (sodium). Vitamins are grouped into water soluble (WSV) including C and B complex vitamins; they cannot be stored and therefore, it is imperative to be part of a balanced diet, and fat soluble (FS) including vitamins K,E,D, and A; they can be stored (refer appendix 5 for RDA). Green leafy vegetables (lettuce), oranges, kiwi fruit, avocados, whole grains and cereals, banana, dairy products, liver, poultry, pork, oily fish, eggs, soybeans, chickpeas and nuts are excellent sources of the vitamins (Firth 2011). Vitamin K can be synthesised in the intestine which helps the blood clot whereas Vitamin D can be synthesised by the body using sunlight to help the absorption of calcium and phosphorus (Cranney et al (2010). Vitamins A and C build immunity. Vitamins B1,B2,B3, and biotin help release energy. Vitamin A, niacin and pantothenic acid aid the absorption and use of macronutrients monomers. Vitamin C makes collagen and enhances folate absorption. Vitamin deficiency generally causes weak immunity and osteoporosis (Vitamin D), scurvy (Vitamin C), beriberi (B1), anaemia (B12 and folate) and night blindness (Vitamin A). Excessive amounts of vitamins E and K are usually not harmful but excess A,D and the WSV which can be excreted cause kidney problems and hypercalcaemia (excess D). Excessive vitamin C causes diarrhoea (NHS 2012). In conclusion, spending excessively on supplements and creams as well as engaging in dangerous diets like the Atkins Diet are not necessary. The secret to healthy living is carefully selecting the right proportions of food from the Eatwell plate, drinking enough water in combination with regular exercises. Figure 5 and appendix 6 show functions of water. Consider the positives and negatives when selecting food products such as red meat; rich in protein but high in cholesterol whereas fatty fish enhances calcium absorption. Soybean, liver, green leafy vegetables, whole grains and legumes will provide almost all the nutrients; combine them in your diet in right proportions for optimal hormonal, metabolic, mental and physical functions of the body. It is important to consult a doctor before starting any diet as nutritional needs are affected by health and some medications affect absorption of nutrients. FUNCTIONS OF WATER IN THE BODY [pic]Figure 5 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2013 LIST OF APPENDIXES APPENDIX 1 |FOOD GROUP |SERVINGS PER DAY | |Carbohydrates including bread, pasta, rice, potatoes and other starchy foods |6-10 servings | |Fruits and vegetables |3-5 servings | |Meat, fish, eggs, beans and nuts |2-3 servings | |Milk and dairy foods |2-3 servings | |Food and drinks high in fat and/or in sugar |Use sparingly | University of Michigan Integrative Medicine, 2010 APPENDIX 2: OBESITY AND BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) |BMI |LEVEL OF OBESITY | |Below 18.5 |Underweight | |From 18.5-24.9 |Healthy Range | |From 25-30 |Pre Obese | |Above 30 |Obese | NHS, 2012 APPENDIX 3: FOOD GROUPS AND EXAMPLES |FOOD GROUP |EXAMPLES | |Legumes |Beans, Lentils, Peas, Chickpeas, French beans, Kidney , soybeans, Coco beans etc. | |Whole grains |Barley, Corn, Millet, Oats, Rice, Milo, Wheat | |Green leafy vegetables |Spinach, Broccoli, Lettuce, Cabbage, Mustard green, Kale examples | APPENDIX 4: MINERALS AND THEIR RDA |SYMBLE |SOURCES |RDA | |Na (Sodium) |Table Salt, Sea vegetables, spinach, milk |6g | |Ca (Calcium) |Salmon, Sardine, eggs, dairy products, nuts, oregano |700mg | |K (Potassium) |Spinach, legumes, tomatoes, banana, avocado, whole grains and |3500mg | | |yams | | |P (Phosphate) |Fish, poultry, oats, rice, red meat, |700mg | |Fe (Iron) |Eggs, spinach, shrimps, soybeans, lentils, tomatoes, olives, |M=8.7mg / F=4.8mg | | |tomatoes | | |Mg (Magnesium) |Spinach, soybean, sea vegetables, tomatoes, beans, brazil nuts|M=300mg / F=270mg | |I (Iodine) |Eggs, milk, fish, shellfish, yoghurt, strawberries, iodised |0.14mg | | |salt | | |Se (Selenium) |Cod, salmon, garlic, lamb, cheese, calf liver, barley, brazil |75mcg | | |nuts | | |Zn (Zinc) |Calf liver, spinach, eggs, oats, oyster, lean pork and beef, |M=5.5-9.5mg / F=4-7mg | | |asparagus | | USA Department of Agriculture / Department of Health, 2010 APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS AND THEIR RDAÃ¢â¬â¢S |VITAMIN |SOURCES |RDA | |Retinol (A) |Liver, fish oil, carotenoids, milk fortified |M=0.7mg / F=0.6mg | |Ascorbic acid (C) |Citrus (oranges), kiwi fruit, broccoli |40mg | |Thiamin (B1) |Liver, pork, whole grains and products |M=1mg / F=0.8mg | |Riboflavin (B2) |Liver, eggs, milk, rice, mushrooms |M=1.3mg / F=1.1mg | |Niacin (B3) |Poultry, fish, beef, peanut butter, legumes |M=17mg / F=13mg | |Pyridoxine (B6) |Liver, pork, legumes, fish, whole grains |M=1.4mg / F=1.2mg | |Cobalamin (B12) |Beef, poultry, cod, salmon, cheese, eggs |0.0015mg | |Vitamin E |Vegetable oil, green vegetables, nuts |12mg | |Folate |Broccoli, peas, asparagus, brown rice |0.2mg | |Pantothenic acid |Milk, fruits, veggies, meat, fish, grains |10mg | |Biotin |Cottage cheese, liver, eggs, peanut, grain |300mcg | |Vitamin K |Green vegetables, fruits, nuts |75mg | |Note that Vitamin K can be synthesised in the intestine whereas Vitamin D can be derived salmon, fortified cereals and juices, milk and | |sunlight (No RD A but 15minutes in the sun thrice a week is enough) | USA Department of Agriculture / Department of Health, 2010 APPENDIX 6: RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE FOR WATER |SEX |RDA FOR WATER | |MALE |3.7L with no upper limit increase with exercise to rehydrate | |FEMALE |2.7L with no upper limit increase with exercise to rehydrate and increase intake when | | |breast feeding. | INSTITUTE OF MEDICENE 2004 REFERENCE LIST ONLINE Ã¢Å¾ ¢ British Dietetic Association (2013) Food fact sheet: cholesterol [Online] Available from: http://www.bda.uk.com/foodfacts/cholesterol.pdf [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ British Nutrition Foundation (2013) Confusion on fat and heart health [Online]. Available from: http://www.nutrition.org.uk/nutritioninthenews/headlines/fats [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention (2012) Nutrition for everyone: Protein [Online] Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/protein.html [Accessed on 19/12/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Cranney et al, (2007) Effectiveness and safety of vitamin D in relation to bone health [Online] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18088161?dopt=Abstract [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. (2004) Dietary reference intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride and Sulphate. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine. [Online]. Available from: www.iom.edu/Reports/2004/Dietary-Reference-Intakes-Water-Potassium- [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board (2010) Dietary reference intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine. [Online]. Available from: http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Fil.pdf [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Marshall University (2012) [Online] Available from: http://science.marshall.edu/murraye/alpha_amylase.htm [Accessed on 18/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research [no date] Nutrition and healthy eating: functions of water in the body. [Online] Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/medical/IM00594 [Accessed on 19/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ National Health Service (2011) [Online] Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages/eatwell-plate.aspx [Accessed on 17/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ National Health Service (2011) [Online] Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/chq/Pages/3215.aspx?CategoryID=51 [Accessed on 17/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ National Health Service (2012) [Online] Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/chq/Pages/1126.aspx?CategoryID=51&SubCategoryID=164 [Accessed on 17/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ United States of America. Department of Agriculture/Department of Health and Human Services (2010), Dietary guidelines for Americans, Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. [Online] Available from: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf [Accessed: 19/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ University of Michigan Integrative Medicine (2010) Healing foods pyramid [Online] Available from: http://www.med.umich.edu/umim/food-pyramid/fats.htm [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ World Health Organisation (2013) [Online] Available from: http://www.who.int/topics/nutrition/en/ [Accessed: 17/02/2013]. ONLINE JOURNALS Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Kumar et all (2012) Dietary roles of non-starch polysaccharides in human nutrition: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Volume 52(10). [Online] Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10408398.2010.512671?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed. [Accessed on 23/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Schenker S. (2012). UK recommendations for dietary fat: should they be reassessed in light of the recent FAO/WHO recommendations? Nutrition Bulletin, 37(1), pp. 37-46. [Online] Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2011.01946.x/full [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. BOOKS Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Firth L. (2011) Nutrition and diet. Issues 205, Cambridge: Independence Educational Press. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Higdon, J. and Drake, V. J. (2011) An evidenced-based approach to vitamins and minerals: health benefits and intake recommendation. 2nd Edition. New York: Thieme. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Kuil W. A D. (2012) Sources of dietary protein and risk of hypertension in a general Dutch population, British Journal of Nutrition, 108 (10), pp. 1897-1903. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Martini F. H. (2006) Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology. 7th Edition. San Francisco: Pearson Education. pp. 39-58. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Whitney, E. and Rolfes S. R. (2011) Understanding nutrition. 12th Edition. Belmont: Wadsworth. BIBLIOGRAPHY ONLINE Ã¢Å¾ ¢ British Dietetic Association (2013) Food fact sheet: sugar [Online] Available from: http://www.bda.uk.com/foodfacts/Sugar.pdf [Accessed on 20/02/02013] Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Georgetown University (2012) Proteins: what does it do? [Online] Available from: http://www.georgetown.edu/admin/auxiliarysrv/dining/nutrition/protein.html [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Stoner, L et al (2012) Preventing a Cardiovascular Disease Epidemic among Indigenous Populations through Lifestyle Changes. [Online] Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3354392/ [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. BOOKS Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Blomhoff R, et al. Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants. British Journal of Nutrition. 2006; 96. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ New Zealand. Ministry of Health (2003), Food and nutrition guideline for healthy adults: a background paper, Wellington: Ministry of Health. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Rolfes, S. R. et al (2009) Understanding normal and clinical nutrition. 8th Edition. Belmont: Wadsworth. ONLINE VIDEOS Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Dairy: essential nutrition or health saboteur? Ã¢â¬â Keon, J. (2011) [Online video]. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cp9MwjW5QX0 [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Good nutrition made easy: how to grow a healthy adult Ã¢â¬â Davidson, L. (2012) [Online video]. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6qAeAzreESg [Accessed on 20/02/2013].